How have the following factors influenced the making and breaking of European nations in the modern era (late-18th century on)? Choose ONE of the following three factors and answer by discussing the identity, culture and/or politics of at least two Europe
Topic: How have the following factors influenced the making and breaking of European nations in the modern era (late-18th century on)? Choose ONE of the following three factors and answer by discussing the identity, culture and/or politics of at least two European nations or autonomous regions.

1. Empire 2. Cold War 3. Islam
CHOOSE 1. EMPIRE

-use at least 4 materials that i attached
-Do not cite from websites, unless they are published by a reputable institution (such as a university, institute professional body or similar entity). Wikipedia is not a citable source.
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