write a good paper applying and explaining the knowledge from these notes. Use good examles to explain the theories.
Full NOTES Will be aded in the tracking order.
Here are some basics just so you know what it is about.
Our goal is to explain why decision-makers pay attention to one issue and not another. This course is concerned in why and how problems become or do not become
problems on an agenda.
What is agenda setting ?
The different types of agendas
-Media agenda, articles, stories from tv news or newspapers
-Citizens agenda, public opinion : the set of issues citizens consider as the most important problems. Polling questions are employed to mesure the citizens agenda
-Institutional agenda, sometimes called formal agenda. Cobb and Elder (American authors) distinguish it as the set of concrete items scheduled for active and serious
consideration by a particular institutional decision-making body. Institutional agenda is made of the list of the problems decision makers formerly accept for
consideration. Such agendas exist at every level of government. We may thus distinguish the presidential, governmental, regional, city agenda There are several of
them. When analyzing the process, we group all of them under the term policy agenda.
-Sometimes we differentiate (Cobb and Elder) a fourth agenda : the systemic agenda. Definition : all issues commonly perceived by a members of political community (or
citizens) as meriting public attention of public authorities. The systemic agenda includes both the media and citizens agenda. Often, putting an issue on this agenda
is considered as a prerequisite to the inclusion of an issue on the institutional, formal agenda.
29 propositions in 6 broad categories of analysis that explain the rise and fall of social problem on the agenda (Hilgartner & Bosks model enriched)
1.A social problem is a putative situation that (at least some) actors label a “problem” in the different arenas (i.e. institutionalized parts of the social world).
2.The level of attention devoted to a social problem is not a function of its objective makeup alone but is determined by a process of collective framing its
definition in particular ways (cf. Blumer, Spector & Kitsuse, Gusfield, Stone, etc.)
3.The construction of social problems occurs within the public arenas. The success (or size, or scope) of a social problem is measured by the amount of attention
devoted to it in these arenas
4.Each arena has a carrying capacity that limits the number of social problems it can entertain during a given period.
5.The population of potential social problems (i.e., putative situations or conditions that could be considered problems) is huge.
6.The carrying capacity of the public arenas is much too small to accommodate all potential social problems.
7.Therefore, social problems must compete for space in the arenas. This competition is ongoing; problems must compete both to enter and to remain on the public agenda.
8.The number of social problems is a function not of the number of harmful or dangerous conditions facing society but of the carrying capacity of public arenas.
Dynamics of Competition
9.Competition among social problems occurs simultaneously on two levels: First, there is competition for space between substantively different problems, as priorities
are set as to which problems are important and therefore merit public space. Second, within each substantive area, there is competition over definitions, that is,
between alternative ways of framing the problem. These two types of competition interact.
10.The public attention received by social problems is very unevenly distributed over the population of social problems:
a)a very small number of social problems are extremely successful and become the dominant topics of public discourse;
b)a somewhat larger number are moderately successful and command some public attention; and
c)the vast majority of potential social problems remain outside of or on the extreme margins of public discourse.
11.The amount of attention received by a given social problem varies dynamically over time (cf. Downs):
a)problems that have achieved some success are constantly in danger of undergoing a decline and being displaced; and
b)while some problems may rise, decline, and reemerge, very few maintain a high level of attention over many years.
12.Except to the extent that the carrying capacities of the public arenas are changing, the ascent of one social problem will tend to be accompanied by the decline of
one or more others.
Principles of Selection
13.All arenas have principles of selection that influence the probability that particular social problems will appear there. (Propositions 14 and 18 address selection
principles that operate in all the arenas.)
14.Causal argument are at the heart of problem definition. Problems that attribute bad conditions to human behavior instead of to accident, fate or nature have better
chance of success (cf. Stone)
15.Problems have also better chance of success if they can be considered as facts. Science, and more generally knowledge, is a particularly efficient tool in doing
this (cf. Gusfield).
16.Arenas place a premium on drama. Social problems presented in a dramatic way (thats to say that they display visible harms and conflict over the meaning of the
problem) have a higher probability of successfully competing in the arenas they are based on.
a)saturation of the arenas with redundant claims and symbols can dedramatize a problem; which is why focusing events are so important, their rarity limits this risk
dedramatization. (cf. Birkland);
b)repeated bombardment of the public with messages about similar problems can dedramatize problems of that class; and
c)to remain high on the public agenda, a problem must remain dramatic; thus, new symbols or events must continually renew the drama or the problem will decline.
18.The smaller the carrying capacity of an arena is, the more intense the competition.
19.In addition to these general selection principles, each particular arena has its own local selection principles that depend on its institutional characteristics and
occupational culture. These local factors also influence selection. For example, each public arena has a characteristic rhythm of organizational life that influences
the timing of its interactions with social problems, thus affecting selection (cf. the political life)
20.Many operatives are familiar with the selection principles of public arenas, and they deliberately adapt their social problem claims to fit their target
environments (e.g., by packaging their claims in a form that is dramatic, succinct, and employs novel symbols or classic theatrical tropes (cf. Gusfield).
21.Social networks and patterned institutional relations link the public arenas, producing positive feedback between arenas.
22.Problems that rise in one public arena have a strong tendency to spread into others. A relatively small number of very successful social problems tend to occupy
much of the space in most of the arenas.
23.However, some problems that are unable to compete in most arenas manage to survive by establishing a niche in a particular arena, yet show little sign of spreading.
These deviations from the general pattern are not random, but result from systematic differences in the principles of selection of that arena. Still, these problems
will go through ups and downs as described by the issue attention cycle (cf. Downs).
Communities of Operatives s
24.Communities of operatives (i.e. specialists of an issue coming from different arenas) form around social problems; these communities span the arenas of public
discourse (which partly explains the feedbacks between problems).
25.A department (= more or less problem areas, cf. Hilgar
Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.
Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.
This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.
To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.
It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.
Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>