Agricultural economy in Europe

1) There were several reasons that the agricultural economy in Europe, and especially in Western Europe, began producing larger surpluses in the early modern period (in particular in the 1600s and 1700s). First, explain the main reasons for the increased production of agricultural surplus and give examples to support your response. Then, briefly explain some of the consequences of this development (be sure to give and explain your examples). 2) Define Absolutism in your own words. What were the fundamental ideas of Absolutism? Explain these ideas. What were some of the most important examples of Absolutist policies in practice? Be sure to explain why these examples. 3) What basic assumptions developed during the Scientific Revolution about nature and about how we gain knowledge became underlying principles of Enlightenment? Be sure to explain these ideas/principles, and be sure to give and explain examples. Based upon these underlying principles, what sorts of institutions did Enlightenment thinkers criticize and why (give and explain examples).