Analyse and critically evaluate the problems in using the cross cultural approach to International HR. Q1: MUST include the following Information. * Main Issue in cross-cultural Research: “ There are growing concerns about the extent to which theoretical models of HRM and specific management practices are capable of being transferred from one country to another” Sparrow & Pei-Chuan Wu(1998) Does National culture really matter, Employee Relations,v20 n1 p1. * National culture is linked to HRM through 6 main mechanisms: 1. Attitudes & definitions of effective management 2. Communication, levels of power and decision making 3. Conceptions about career, promotion 4. Manager/subordinate relationship 5. Pay systems/individualisation of reward 6. Mindsets when considering organisational structuring * Appraisal and culture Performance may be interpreted or valued differently due to culturally shaped value and belief systems. Western organisations is performance whereas Asian firms emphasize employees personalities and characteristics, individualist culture vs. collectivist. Interpretation of what is good/bad right/wrong is likely to be perceived differently by those whose culture is different from the appraised. * Issues for appraisal: Degree of participation. Choice of measurement methods. Degree of formality (collectivist cultures emphasise less formal approaches-Ramamoorthy & Carol (1998). Respect for authority – Lindhol et al (1999) study of Chinese subsidiaries indicate problems with the western practice of choice of appraisers i.e. superiors. Belief about level of control of the environment…fatalistic beliefs in relation to worker control e.g.. Karma. Feedback process – significant in terms of losing/saving face. Limited acknowledgement of possible cultural explanations for employee performance Inherently subjective nature of appraisal. References MUST used in Q1: 1- THE MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE ACROSS CULTURES: VALUING PEOPLE DIFFERENTLY 2- Terence Jackson. 3- Editor in chief Jean Woodall (2005): Theoretical frameworks for comparing HRD in an international context. 4- Gary N. McLean & Laird McLean (2001): If we can’t define HRD in one country, how can we define it in an international context?