ancient chinese civilization
Question 1: What do these two quotations show us about the differences between Daoist teachings and the teachings of Confucius? (You may copy the quotations into your paper if you wish, but don’t include them in your word count.)
(Confucius’ disciple) Yu Tzu said, “It is rare for a man whose character is such that he is good as a son and obedient as a young man to have the inclination to transgress against his superiors; it is unheard of for one who has no such inclination to be inclined to start a rebellion. The gentleman devotes his efforts to the roots, for once the roots are established, the Way will grow therefrom. Being good as a son and obedient as a young man is, perhaps, the root of a man’s character.” (Analects, Book 1:2.)
“The True Man of ancient times knew nothing of loving life, knew nothing of hating death. He emerged without delight, he went back in without a fuss. He came briskly, he went briskly and that is all. He didn’t forget where he began; he didn’t try to find out where he would end. He received something and took pleasure in it; he forgot about it and handed it back again. This is what I call not using the mind to repel the Way, not using man to help out Heaven. This is what I call the True Man. (fromChuangzi, Chapter 6, “The Great and Venerable Teacher, p. 78,. You may find it helpful to re-read at least that chapter as you think about this.)http://library.holtof.com/unicorn/chuang-tzu/6.htm
Question 2.What connections can you make between this quotation from the Legalist philosopher Han Feizi and the Han dynasty historian SimaQian’s account, in the Records of the Grand Historian, of the First Emperor of Qin’s rise and fall? What did SimaQian think about Han Feizi’s point of view? What do YOU think?
“When the sage rules the state, he does not count on people doing good by themselves, but employs such measures as will keep them from doing any evil. If he counts on people doing good by themselves, there will not be enough such people to be numbered by the tens in the whole country. But if he employs such measures as will keep them from doing evil, then the entire state can be brought up to a uniform standard. Since the administrator has to consider the many but disregard the few, he does not concern himself with morals but with laws.” (“The Legalists,” p. 141,.)
Question 3.Describe the spread of Buddhism from India into China, including the reasons why it appealed to particular groups of people at that particular time, and the ways in which Chinese people adapted it to meet their own needs.
Question 4.Compare the mood of these two poems. I’ve included Chinese text for the convenience of those who can read it, but just work from the English if you can’t read the Chinese. Explain what you think they’re about and how you think they’re different. You can include information about the poets themselves if it helps you explain.