Are we utilizing the best practice when it comes to Treating and Preventing Cancer?

Are we utilizing the best Practice When it comes to Treating and Preventing Cancer?
Clinical Question
Describe the problem
Cancer is amongst the diseases killing the highest number of people every year. People have been trying to come up with the best ways to manage the condition since the existing models of treating it are quite expensive. There is a need for the development of treating regimes that are affordable to the majority of people. The paper seeks to identify sources that can help in understanding the existing proposed solutions with a particular interest directed towards fasting as a mode that can be applied in the management of cancer.
Significance of the Problem in Terms of Outcomes or Statistics
There has been ongoing research about fasting as a mode of managing cancer. However, there is still low uptake of new techniques in cancer therapy since most of the used methods have been in use for more than thirty years. According to Stephan et al., (2018), short term fasting tends to help in increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Understandably, fasting has a marked effect on metabolic pathways, as well as cellular responses, for example, response to stress (hormesis). It also tends to downregulate the growth of cells, a factor that supports short term fasting in cancer therapy. Differential stress response entails a state where short term fasting helps in the protection of healthy cells during chemotherapy, while at the same time, not protecting cancerous cells because oncogenic pathways tend to prevent stress resistance. According to Riccardo et al. (2019), recent research has not yet reconciled the effect of fasting on toxicity as well as survival. Most of the research has focused on the impact of fasting on treatment. As a practice, the inclusion of short term fasting alongside chemotherapy comes out highly effectively. The lessened application of short-term fasting or low advice to patients on the need to use fasting as a mode of therapy showcases the low uptake of the newer techniques in cancer therapy and management. When looking at the highlighted benefits, it is crucial to implement further studies, which can help in creating awareness that would lead to people seeing the need to incorporate other management methods.
PICOT question in support of the group topic
Are we utilizing the best practice (fasting in oncology) when it comes to treating and preventing cancer?
Purpose of the paper
The purpose of the paper is to look at the existing research to locate sources that can help in answering the above question. The issue of fasting in cancer is one of the few emerging issues that has been extensively researched owing to its effect on the cell, which, in one way or another, affects cancerous cells. The paper seeks to identify sources that have done extensive research on fasting and cancer intending to create better models of cancer management.
Levels of Evidence
Types of questions asked
The types of question asked were open-ended. These helped in making it easy to explore the various issues around cancer treatment, and the rarity of the use of short term fasting.
Best Evidence found to Answer Question
The best evidence found pointed to the strides that have been made in cancer research regarding the incorporation of short term fasting in cancer management. It also showcases that there is low usage of fasting alongside other models of therapy. The existing models of treating and preventing cancer have been dormant in terms of evolution for over thirty years. Primarily, people still use surgery, chemotherapy, and/or therapy in treating cancer. The research on cancer has been showing different ways that the world can try to treat cancer, one of these being fasting. Many sources tend to agree that cancer can be slowed to the extent that the cells can die through fasting. So far, few cases have been highlighted as the significant cancers contributors when it concerns the foods that people consume. Thus, research is still far from bringing forth a remedy that would help declare cancer a done case. The sources examined point to the value of fasting in keeping the body in check, especially when it concerns starving the cancerous and potentially cancerous cells through calorie restriction. Riccardo, et al., (2018) also showed why it was taking late to implement fasting in cancer treatment.
Search Strategy
Search Terms
The terms used for the research were ‘fasting’, ‘cancer’, ‘cancer research’, as well as, ‘fasting and cancer’.
Database used
The primary database used was google scholar. Its extensive array of articles helped in singling out some of the best papers worthy in helping answer the questions asked. Another dataset applied was PubMed due to its wide range of medical research articles.
Refinement Decision
Given the wideness of the terms ‘cancer research’, and ‘fasting and cancer’, the refinement decision made entailed using more specific terms such as ‘short-term fasting’, ‘oncology and fasting’, and ‘calorie restriction’. These yielded faster and more beneficial results.
Two most Relevant Sources
Riccardo, C., Giuseppe, A., Emanuele, C. & Paolo, P. (2019). Fasting in Oncology: A Word of Caution. Nature Reviews, Cancer 19, 177.
The article focuses on fasting in oncology, whereby the authors caution rushed used of fasting as a means to manage cancer. The authors highlight the benefits, the researched areas, while also warning against rushed use. The caution is due to low research concerning the limitations on the use of fasting in oncology.
Stephan, B. P., Kessler, C. Wischnewsky, A. J., Steckhan, N. Stange, R., Kunz, B., Brucker, B., Sehouli, J, & Michalsen (2018). BMC Cancer, 18, 426, 10.1186/s12885-018-4353-2
The source lays down the various advances in research regarding short term fasting. It shows the benefits that one accrues for using fasting alongside chemotherapy, while also pointing out the areas it works and areas that it does not. The authors are thorough and look at both the benefits and the limitations of fasting in oncology.

Kusuoka, O., Fujiwara-tani, R., Nakadshima, C., Fujii, K., Ohmori, H., Mori, T., Miyagawa, Y., Goto, K., Kawahar, I. & Kuniyasu, H. (2017). Intermittent Calorie Restriction Enhances Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through the alteration of energy Metabolism in a Mouse Tumor Model. International Journal of oncology, 52(w2), 413-423.
Riccardo, C., Giuseppe, A., Emanuele, C. & Paolo, P. (2019). Fasting in Oncology: A Word of Caution. Nature Reviews Cancer 19, 177.
Stephan, B. P., Kessler, C. Wischnewsky, A. J., Steckhan, N. Stange, R., Kunz, B., Brucker, B., Sehouli, J, & Michalsen (2018). BMC Cancer, 18, 426, 10.1186/s12885-018-4353-2