Analyze-> What do you think of their ideas or arguments? Are they good, wrong, weak? What are the implications of their ideas? What are the limitations? How do they compare to other thinkers? Research on others analyses of these ideas from secondary sources can be helpful here. Summarize-> Take some time to describe what the philosopher means or what point they are trying to make; what ideas are they using? Are those ideas metaphysical, epistemological, or axiological? Including historical background can be helpful as well. It will be helpful to research these thinkers on your own to lend more substance to your understanding of their thought in particular area. Apply-> Where do we see examples of this kind of thinking? Can you think about a situation differently utilizing this philosopher’s ideas? Do their ideas not apply in some situation? Are there cases that prove or disprove these ideas? Here it will be helpful to draw on your own life experience or historical circumstances to elaborate.