Bakashi

Bakashi

Affluence – As is the case in many parts of the developing world, solid waste from rural areas, where people are poorer, has a higher proportion of organic matter, approximately 60 to 75% (Vietnam Environment Monitor 2004. World Bank, MoNRE and CIDA. 65 pp.).

Reduction and segregation at source should be enhanced. It helps take-out food waste for composting (41.9%). Vietnam, for example, is an agricultural country, thereby a big market for compost (Municipal Waste Management Report: Status Quo and Issues in Southeast and East Asian Countries, Part IV, p40).

(Rosana Escobar)
Due to the statistics that a 70 % of rubbish is put in everyday, recycling could be a beneficial process from this by mixed-waste garbage bin to make compost and mulch. Digging compost into garden soil reduces the need for watering by an average of 30%, and because it acts like a fertilizer there is no need to invest money on fertilizers that contaminate landfills as well. In fact based on figures ?????? the tons of organic waste is ??????? Therefore this could potentially reduce the amount of organic waste to landfill by XY%, therefore reducing the potentially harmful GH gas Methane leaching into the environment.

For this there is some necessary information that it has to be follow in order to get the best result out of this recycling procedure.

Bins should have 225 liters capacity, 76cm high by 58 cm across made of plastic.

What is Bokashi composting
Bokashi composting is a practical procedure base on a bucket and a special mix that working together eliminate the odours associated with putrefaction and decay.  From using food waste that only will turn out to contaminate your house and landfill you could make compost and rich juice, that will bring different types of benefits to your house.
Benefits and uses
(http://www.bokashi.com.au/how-does-it-work/bokashi-juice/)
•    Composts all kitchen waste hygienically minus the unpleasant odours and insects
•    Waste is conveniently stored indoors – no need to run outside to the compost bin
•    Bokashi composting, is rapid, occurring in a matter of weeks.
•    It means that less food waste goes into landfill
•    No greenhouse gases – especially methane – are released.
•    Bokashi composting contributes to cleaning up our waterways. When the juice produced is used in toilets, drains and septic systems, the good bacteria compete with harmful bacteria and algae build-up is prevented
•    It reduces your carbon footprint.
•    Bokashi compost enriches and rebuilds soil on a microbial level, with the micro-organisms present injecting life and vitality
•    It produces a rich juice, which, when diluted, is perfect for natural garden fertilisation
•    It saves you money by reducing the need to purchase fertiliser
•    Bokashi compost increases the water holding capacity of soil
•    Bokashi composting adds nutrients to your soil so, if you grow your own produce, more nutrients in the soil = more nutrients in your food!

How does it work?
Put simply, food waste is layered with Bokashi Mix in a Bokashi Bucket. Due to the air-tight bucket and the micro-organisms present in the Bokashi Mix, the waste ferments. It does not decompose inside the bucket, it reduces in volume as the water content of the waste drains through the grate at the bottom of the bucket.
The Bokashi juice produced is alive with micro-organisms and can be used in the garden and around the home. When the bucket is full, the waste is transferred outside and buried beneath the soil to complete the composting process. Breakdown is rapid thanks to the micro-organisms present in the Bokashi Mix. Bokashi compost supplies soil with nutrients from the waste and more life in the form of the micro-organisms. The Bokashi  system significantly accelerates the composting process.

.

Bokashi Juice

The amount of juice your Bokashi kitchen composting system produces depends on the type of food stored in it; so don’t be concerned if little or no juice is produced. Adding fruit and vegetables tends to increase juice production. Be careful not to add too much Bokashi Mix as this can result in reduced juice creation.
Take care with the tap. Do not unscrew more than ¾ of a turn. If you think the tap is blocked, try clearing with a skewer.
Using the juice
1. IN THE GARDEN
BOKASHI JUICE MUST BE DILUTED PRIOR TO USE IN THE GARDEN. READ ON!
Bokashi juice contains nutrients from the food waste and is alive with micro-organisms so it makes a terrific, free fertiliser!
•    To fertilise an existing garden or pot, dilute 1 teaspoon of juice with 2-3 liters of water and apply directly to the soil.
•    To ferltilise trees or shrubs, dilute 2 teaspoons with 2-3 liters of water.

Do not apply directly to the foliage.

2. AROUND THE HOME

Put the concentrated Bokashi juice directly into kitchen and bathroom drains, toilets and septic systems. It will help prevent algae build-up and control odour. And as a huge bonus, it contributes to cleaning up our waterways as the good bacteria compete with the bad bacteria!

Bokashi juice cannot be stored and must be used within 24 hours after draining from the bucket.
Helpful hints for maximising your Bokashi OneTM system

?    Minimise the amount of rotten or mouldy food waste added to the Bokashi OneTM Bucket.
?    Break or chop large waste into smaller pieces.
?    Always close the lid tightly and remember to frequently drain the juice that accumulates at the bottom.
?    Press down every layer of food waste in the bucket to remove air. Try using a potato masher or a pot lid, or pop your hand into a plastic bag.
?    Do not add water or excessive amounts of liquid.
?    Do not place the bucket in the sun.
?    Wash the bucket well after each use.
?    Look into community composting and gardening projects in your area.
?    Don’t be afraid to experiment with the process until you get a feel for how this process can work best for you!

VIDEOS
http://www.bokashi.com.au/how-does-it-work/demonstrator-films/

PRICES

Buckets
From $85
?

Bokashi Mix
From $9.90

EM Effective micro organisms activator

It is a mixed culture of fermentative, soilbased and beneficial micro-organisms that brings benefits to different types of environments.

•    Gardening as a soil builder.
•    Household Cleaning to exclude and eliminate harmful bacteria.
•    Pets / Animals as a probiotic to reduce pet odours and for good health.
•    Water purification to reduce algae and harmful bacteria in water.

A really positive aspect of EM is that it doesnt contain any organisms that have been in any way modified. They are species that live naturally in the environment of almost every place in the world and contribute in breaking down the organic matter.

Preparation of EM-Active
Effective Micro-organisms (EM) should be activated before using in the home or garden by
adding water and A+.
DOSAGE:
Use the following calculation to make 1 Litre of EM Active.
• 50 ml EM
• 50 ml Molasses
• 950 ml Water
= 1 litre EM-Active
METHOD:
• Take a 1-litre measure
• Half-fill the measure with lukewarm water
• Dissolve 50 ml of A+ in the measure, stirring well.
• Stir in 50 ml of EM solution.
• Top up to 1 litre with lukewarm wáter

1. In The Home
• Cleaning with EM. EM is a very acidic solution that re-populates surfaces with beneficial
microbes. The presence of these microbes discourages mould, fungus and harmful
bacteria from taking root.
• EM helps to eliminate odours from pets, cigarette smoke, and odour-causing bacteria,
as well.
• A small squirt bottle filled with straight EM is handy to keep by the kitchen sink.
• It can be used to add to water for washing vegetables, to pour down the sink to reduce
odours, and to spray on sponges to keep it fresh and reduce harmful bacteria.
• One teaspoon of EM can be added per load as the washing machine fills with water.
This is recommended for light coloured laundry since the microbes love fabric dyes, and
dark coloured articles have a tendency to fade.) If using EM, reduce detergent to 1/3 the
usual amount. If possible, let the clothes pre-soak for 10-15 minutes before running
through the cycle.
• Use 1 Tbsp of EM to about 5 litres of room temperature water for mopping ceramic tile
or vinyl floors. No detergent is needed. For use on wood floors and furniture, dilute 3/4
tsp. to one 5litres water. Wipe dry immediately.

Add 1 tsp. EM to a litre of water, and spray or wipe on tile, porcelain, and Formica. Let
is stand on wood or plastic cutting boards to discourage salmonella and other harmful
bacteria. Then rinse. This dilution must be used within 3 days.
• Diluted EM can be sprayed lightly in shoes to keep them smelling fresh and on shower
curtains to discourage mould!!
• Clean dustbins & ‘wheelie bins’ with this mixture to reduce odours.
• Use a diluted solution and spray generously on light coloured automobile interior, door
panels, light-coloured upholstery, and carpets to freshen and deodorize.
2. Gardening and Soil Improvement
• Gardening and Soil Improvement EM can be used to inoculate plants, water and soil in
various ways to achieve beneficial results.
• It can be sprayed on soil as a pre-planting treatment, used to inoculate seeds or
transplants, and applied to growing crops as a foliar spray or through irrigation systems.
• EM is useful in growing nursery crops, container-grown plants, and even in hydroponics.
• After crops are harvested, EM is used to help break down crop residues.
• EM can be applied to cover crops and green manures during growth and upon
incorporation into the soil, and is applied to pastures with good results.
• General Directions:
For most crop applications, EM or AEM is diluted with water at a ratio of 1 part EM to
1,000 parts water. Do not apply with pesticides or fungicides. It is best to start on a
small scale and experiment with EM to determine the best methods and ratios for
specific locations.
• Pre-Planting: Between two and three weeks before planting, apply a 1:1000 dilution of
EM to the soil.
• Apply as a spray, drench or introduce into irrigation water.
• Seed Treatment: Gardeners may want to try soaking seeds in a solution of EM before
planting to increase seed viability. Dilute EM with water at 1:1000. Soak seeds in
solution for 5-10 minutes and no longer. Air dry and plant as usual. Experiment with
small batches before treating larger quantities. Weak seeds and soil conditions may
lead to decreased results.
• Nursery / Container-grown Plants: Inoculate with EM at seeding and transplant stages,
then on a monthly basis thereafter. Use the standard dilution of 1:1000.
• Orchid growers have achieved good results by inoculating with EM immediately after
planting in sterile media.
• Hydroponics: In hydroponic crop production systems, EM can be diluted with the
nutrient solution at a rate of 1:10,000. This practice will coat the root systems with
beneficial micro-organisms and make nutrient uptake more efficient.
• Vegetables, Fruits & Herbs: Spray the standard dilution of 1:1000 onto the plants.
• If introducing EM into an irrigation system, the dilution should be increased to 1:10,000.
• Apply as a pre-planting treatment, again at planting/transplanting and every three to four
weeks during crop growth.
• Apply also to crop residues after harvest, just before incorporating residues into the soil.
Use 1 gallon of activated EM per acre, diluted with the appropriate amount of water for
each application.

Cover Page
Subject:Sustainable DesignSubject Code:HES1115aStudent Names:Student Number:Nick Viney1471414Harry StormRosanna HomaidYusif

Contents
List of Abbreviation and Acronyms    4
1.    Introduction:    5
Discussion:    19
Burying the Bokashi waste    27
Buckets    29
Bokashi Mix    29

Table of Figures
Figure 1: An above average house in Can Thao – Mekong Delta (Photo courtesy Nick Viney)    5
Figure 2:  From top left to right:  Mining the Mekong for River Sand.  Locals bathing and washing clothes in the Mekong River and Selling produce at the floating markets. (Photos courtesy Nick Viney).    6
Figure 3: Value of Recyclable materials in Hai Phong, Vietnam    11
Figure 4:  A snap shot of how households are disposing of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010)    11
Figure 5: How Incomes affect Disposal methods of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010).    12
Figure 6:  How men and women differ in the disposal methods of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010).    12
Figure 7:  Waste Disposal by Industry Sector    13

List of Abbreviation and Acronyms

MW – Municipal Waste
MSW – Municipal Solid Waste
WHO – World Health Organisation
VEPA – Vietnam Environmental Protection Authority
CLIA – Central Lack of Intelligence Agency
MoNRE – Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam
PBDE’s – Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether
VND & AUD – Vietnamese Dong and Australian Dollar
SE – South East
AIT – Asian Institute of Technology
UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme
GHG – Greenhouse Gas
TMC – Toyota Motor Corporation
TPS – Toyota Production System
SME’s – Small to Medium Enterprises
EWB – Engineers Without Boarders

1.    Introduction:

1.1.    Why do we care?

Every human being deserves to be given the opportunity to live with dignity and not to be subjected to the hardships that poverty and deprivation bestow upon those who have no means of effectively changing what needs to be changed due to circumstances outside of their control.  Basic human requirements of food, water, shelter and good health can only be achieved if people are given the knowledge, tools and practical skills of how to apply it for the betterment of their lives.  Poor waste disposal methods directly affect the health of the environment and its inhabitants yet such practices as throwing rubbish into vacant land or waterways is evident in many Vietnamese communities.   This is indicative of poor policy, infrastructure investment and more importantly poor investment into education regarding the impact of poor waste disposal methods on human health.

It is the responsibility of leaders in developing and developed nations to devise policies and systems that enable the population to strive to what is the basic need to access food, clean water, and suitable shelter which is the foundation to building a fulfilling life for all humans.

Preventative maintenance in the manufacturing sector is a well-practiced discipline and it is done due to the financial benefits to such companies by reducing break down and repair costs and is a key component of ensuring consistency in product quality and supply to market.  The same thinking or principal can be applied to waste disposal; the longer waste is dumped into the open environment the higher the cost is to society in both monetary terms and in health.

1.1.1.    Overview of the extent of the problem.
As a developing country Vietnam has little infrastructure to cope with the enormous amounts of daily waste generated from a population of 91.5 million people.  Only a small proportion of the population, generally the wealthier and those who live in developed urban areas, have access to waste collection services through their local municipality.  In rural provinces the statistics show the majority of households throw their waste into either vacant adjoining properties, into the streets, into creeks and other local waterways, or bury or burn, or dispose of their waste in some other manner (Vietnam Household Living Survey 2010).

The Mekong Delta River system is home to almost 20 million people and is akin to both the Monash freeway and Melbourne’s industrial heartland.  It is a labyrinth of tributaries with both sides of the river densely populated with rudimentary housing both on and alongside the river system.  Many of the houses along the river’s edge sit precariously on unstable embankments which are being constantly eroded due to the relentless water traffic and are crudely repaired with whatever materials are available. The Mekong enables locals to taxi between their homes and their place of trade which includes the movement and selling of food, the mining of river sand for concrete, various forms of aquaculture, tourism and some locals use it to bath and collect the river water to cook with.

Figure 2:  From top left to right:  Mining the Mekong for River Sand.  Locals bathing and washing clothes in the Mekong River and Selling produce at the floating markets. (Photos courtesy Nick Viney).
At a more industrious level the Mekong Delta region produces approximately 120 000 tons of cat fish per year based on 2001 levels and is doubling in size every two years.  Unfortunately, one of the consequences of poor waste management is that this waste and it’s by products end up in the eco system, namely the water supply.  Of particular concern is that many of the plastics thrown into the public domain and municipal waste facilities contain a toxic chemical known as Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDEs).  PBDE can be found in many plastic consumer products such as textiles, electronic appliances including computers, televisions and car components and this chemical is used as a fire retardant and is a known carcinogenic (Contamination by Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Persistent Organochlorines in Catfish and Feed from Mekong Delta Vietnam, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 25, No 10, pp2700 – 2709, 2006, SETAC Press).  Studies have shown that this chemical is leeching into the Mekong River system in high concentrations and is being absorbed into the wild Cat fish population.  Cat Fish farming is a major source of income for local fishermen who on sell to local restaurants and can be purchased by locals at the various floating and land based markets.
Most of Vietnam’s biomedical hazardous waste is disposed of with the general Municipal waste posing a health risk to both the general public and those who work within the Waste Management / Recycling domain.
In 2010 the WHO Vietnam Health Profile reported that 10% of children under the age of 5 died from Diarrhoea.  In a 2009 report titled, Country Profile of Environmental Burden of Disease, there were 5900 deaths caused by Diarrhoea due to Water, sanitation and hygiene issues.

1.2.    What do we know?
Vietnam: A holistic view of Its History, Demographic Profile & Current Waste Practices.
History:

Vietnam is a country that stimulates all of your senses from the very moment you’re feet touch the ground.  Vietnam has a cultural diversity unlike many other South East Asian countries whereby its inhabitants have lived through many occupations during its rich history; China once occupied and had governance over Vietnam for nearly 1000 years until 938AD when they were finally deposed due to the battle of Bach Dang River.  Vietnam self-governed for centuries through Royal families until the French began efforts to colonise Vietnam in 1858 which eventually became a part of French Indochina in 1887(The World Fact book, Central Intelligence Agency Publication, September 10th 2012).  In the Second World War Japan invaded Vietnam to gain a strategic advantage over the allies to blockade supplies to the Chinese.  Vietnamese Nationalist fought alongside the French to oust the Japanese and expected the French to give them the independence they yearned but instead the French remained Colonial Masters.  As a result the Vietnamese troops turned on and defeated the French in 1954, which lead to the Geneva Accord splitting Vietnam into Communist North and Anti-Communist South (The World Fact book, Central Intelligence Agency Publication, September 10th 2012).  Influences of the French occupation can still be seen in many cities today through familiar French architecture.

Demographics:

Vietnam’s population is growing at a rate of about 1.05% per annum and is currently estimated to be 91.5 million people (The World Fact book, Central Intelligence Agency Publication, September 10th 2012).

1.2.1.    Income & Poverty Levels
Western societies are not immune to poverty however in Vietnam the degree or severity, or the sheer numbers of those who struggle on a day to day basis is overwhelming.   However it’s not all doom and gloom.  Vietnam is progressing as a developing country and opportunities for those who are typically bound to agriculture subsistence lifestyles and hence low incomes are increasingly migrating toward industrial centres to improve their income stream (Result of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2010, Page 25). The Vietnam national poverty rate decreased to 10.7% in 2010 according to Vietnam Government Guidelines 2006 – 2010 which may not reflect World metrics.  However new Government Guidelines on Poverty issued for the period 2011 – 2015 have the national poverty rate adjusted for 2010 to 14.2%.  The Average monthly rural income in 2008 was VND 1070 or AUD $ 50.42 in current trading terms.  The poorest earn a meagre VND369 Thousand or AUD $ 17.40 per month which is well below the international measure of $1.25/ day (Result of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2010, Page 14).

The table below details the Vietnamese Governments moving Guidelines that define poverty levels by monthly income levels.

YearVND Urban (000)VND Rural (000)20042181682006260200200837029020104503602011 – 2015500400
Table 2: Vietnam Government Poverty Lines in VND *1000

Table 3 shows the percentage of those in Urban, Rural and Regional areas living in Poverty.
20042006200820102010*Whole Country18.115.513.410.714.2Urban8.67.76.75.16.9Rural21.21816.113.217.4Red River Delta12.7108.66.48.3Northern Midland Mountains29.427.525.122.529.4South East4.63.12.51.32.3Mekong River Delta15.31311.48.912.6
Table 3:  Vietnam Poverty Levels.  Rate in 2010* as per new Government Poverty Lines for 2011-2015

Current Waste Disposal Methods and Future Trends:
As in any country, as the human population and their wealth increases so too does their volume of waste generated.  In wealthier Asian cities the average daily waste generated is in excess of 1 kg/person/day compared to developing Asian countries generate about 0.5kg/person/day (Municipal Waste Management Report: Status Quo and Issues in Southeast and East Asian Countries, Section 2.3, p8; Copyright 2010 AIT/UNEP Regional Resource Centre for the Asia Pacific, ISBN: 978-974-8257-73-0)).  Below is a table showing the composition of Municipal Waste in Hanoi, Vietnam based on 2003 figures.

Type of Municipal Waste Composition (in %)Food WastePaperPlasticMetalGlassOtherHanoi, Vietnam41.91.915.667.227.4
Table 1: Types of Municipal Waste by Composition; Table 4 Municipal Waste Management Report.
Many of the SE Asian countries utilise open dump systems to deal with the ever increasing volumes of solid waste.  The financial cost of collecting and disposing of urban waste is costing urban authorities up to 50 – 70% of their revenues on waste management (Page 2; Municipal Waste Management Report: Status quo and Issues in South East and East Asian Countries).  Astonishingly many of the Asian cities spend up to 40% of their municipality budgets on MW, and 70-90% of that is spent on the collection of the waste alone (Manilla, Philippines in 2004 spent $64 million on MW collection).
In 2004 the Vietnam Environmental Protection Administration (VEPA) reported that the national municipal waste amounted to 12.8 Million Tons of which 50% was Solid Waste and of that Solid Waste only 1.152 to 1.408 Million tons was recycled (Table 3, Page8; Municipal Waste Management Report).  The Vietnamese government reported through their 2010 Household Living Standard Survey only 39.2% households had their waste collected of which 79.6% where Urban and 21.4% of rural areas had their household waste collected (Result of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2010, Page 18).  Below are projected volumes of solid waste which as reported by the Vietnamese Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment ( VN to dump 44 million tonnes of waste by 2015, 13th February 2012, http://vea.gov.vn/en/laws/LegalDocument/Pages/VN-to-dump-44-million-tonnes-of-waste-by-2015-.aspx).

2004 figures from the AIT/UNEP Municipal Waste Management report, states that Vietnam had a total of 49 open dump sites, 91 controlled land fill sites and only 12 of the 61 cities and provincial capitals had engineered or sanitary landfills giving a total of 17 sanitary sites.
Ho Chi Minh City, formerly Saigon, is Vietnam’s most populous city with approximately 7 million inhabitants. In 2012 Ho Chi Minh City recycled materials worth VND 135 billion which is equivalent to AUDS $6.1 million (in 2012 terms) which indicates that recycling of waste materials can be a significant source of income for communities or the informal recycling sector.  The table below shows the value of recycled materials in the Hai Phong district in Vietnams north with a population of approximately 1.83 million (Municipal Waste Management Report: Status Quo and Issues in Southeast and East Asian Countries, Section 3.5, p29).

Figure 3: Value of Recyclable materials in Hai Phong, Vietnam
The Key stakeholders involved in Municipal Solid Waste Collection include:
•    Urban Environment companies as key players in MSW collection, treatment and disposal
•    The ministry for construction which is responsible for the planning and construction of treatment and disposal facilities
•    Ministry and Provincial Department of Natural Resources and Environment.
Per capita Vietnam produces 0.41kg of Municipal Waste per person per day which equates to approximately 34 to 35 million tons of MW per day (Table8: Page34, Municipal Waste Management Report).  Given that the poorest household size in rural Vietnam is 4.18 persons per household (Result of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2010, Page 10) this would mean these families would dispose of approximately 1.7kg of waste per day (0.41 kg x 4.18) consisting of which 0.712 kg would be food waste (41.9% Food Waste, See Table 1).

Figure 4:  A snap shot of how households are disposing of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010)

Figure 5: How Incomes affect Disposal methods of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010).

Figure 6:  How men and women differ in the disposal methods of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010).

Figure 7:  Waste Disposal by Industry Sector
Unfortunately the civil population in Vietnam plays a very limited role in waste management which is the largest contributor to MW.  Segregation efforts can reduce the amount of Food Waste going to land fill, which is a major source GH gas emissions, by 41.9%.
What we don’t know:
Gaps in our Knowledge
As a Lean practitioner (Nick Viney) one of the most important aspects of problem solving I ever learnt was that to truly understand any problem you have to practice what the Japanese call Genchi Genbutsu, Go and See for yourself.  Quite literally when translated to English the term Genchi means location and genbutsu means actual materials or products.  However within Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) this is interpreted to mean “going to the place to see the situation for understanding”. Over time the term Gemba which refers to “Actual Place” is commonly used to describe Genchi Genbutsu and every TMC employee has to practice and demonstrate the application of this principal. Gemba means more than just ‘Actual Place’ in Toyota, it means ‘go to the place where value is being added’. The Toyota Motor Corporation frowns upon the practice of taking anything for granted or to rely upon reports done by others in order to solve problems (The Toyota Way, 14 Management Principles from the World’s greatest manufacturer, Jeffery K Liker, p223).  Toyota trained employees understand that what you see firsthand does not show up in any report and although the numbers are important they do not reveal the details of the actual process.

The following is an excerpt from a man who many consider as the father of the Toyota Production System (TPS), Taiichi Ohno:
“Of course data is important at any Gemba. But I place the greatest importance on facts or the ‘truth’.  For example when a problem occurs, if our identification of the root cause is even slightly incorrect, then our countermeasure also will be completely out of focus.  That is why we use the Five Why’s repeatedly and thoroughly.  And that is the basis of the Toyota scientific method.” (p27, Managing to learn: Using the A3 management process to solve problems, gain agreement, mentor, and lead. John Shook, The Lean Enterprise Institute, 2006)
Therefore the following gaps in our knowledge place a certain amount of uncertainty regarding the successful implementation of our strategy.
a)    There is no way of understanding the psychological and cultural motivations as to why locals continue to pollute their environment.
b)    There is a clear lack of information regarding the types and volumes of Solid Waste being disposed of in An Minh which may differ from different other localities in the Mekong area.
c)    There is no clear information on how or if solid waste is being removed from An Minh at any level.
d)    There is no concise information as to how, when, where and who is collecting and separating the waste into recyclable categories such as paper, plastics, organic material etc for An Minh province.  Is it being done by ‘Pickers’, small cooperatives, SME’s, large waste disposal organisations or the local municipality?
e)    There is no clear information regarding the amount of assistance the An Minh province is receiving from local authorities and/or municipalities in terms of waste management.
Without this detailed information and firsthand knowledge our project will be making a number of suggestions that would atypically work given the right mechanisms of support at local and federal government level.

Your Aims and Objectives:
To reduce waste volume/pollution which affects the natural environment and inhabitant’s health through public education on the 4 R’s, including composting, this can lead to a possible income stream and offset the cost of composting consumables for households.

Site Description:
A closer look at An Minh
An Minh district is a district in Vietnam that is located on Mekong Delta in Kien Giang province. An Minh is characterized by fertile flood plains and is in fact a major producer of rice within Vietnam (Engineers Without Borders, 2012).  An Minh has a large coastline and its coastal areas are characterized by mangrove forests which help to protect the inland from harsh weather as well as providing a breeding ground for animals (Engineers Without Borders, 2012). The climate in Mekong Delta which includes An Minh district is usually hot throughout the year and the dry season lasts for six months and the wet season for another six months (Engineers Without Borders, 2012).

An Minh Demographics
An Minh has an estimated population of 110 000 inhabitants which is a part of the greater Kieng Gieng.  According to the General Statistics Office of Vietnam (2010), the total population in this province is 1,703,500, where 860 400are men approximately 843, 100 women, according to a 2009 census (General Statistics Office of Vietnam, 2010).

Education
As Engineers Without Borders (2012) points out, despite An Minh and other areas that are located on the delta producing a lot of rice, they are the poorest areas in Vietnam and they lag behind other areas in all things including education.

Individual Sustainability Strategy
In order to satisfy our aim of reducing waste in the Anh Minh district, it has been concluded that encouraging schools in the region to educate and actively involve children regarding the issue of pollution will be an effective means of waste reduction. This can be justified with examples on areas in Thailand and South East Vietnam where similar programs have been implemented with significant success.
With some research it was found that a similar project was implemented by a Vietnamese non-governmental organisation called the Thien Chi (meaning “good will”) in the Binh Tuan province in South East Vietnam. Approximately 52 communes and tens of thousands of school children were actively involved in collecting garbage (focussing on plastic). Once collected, the garbage is sold and transported to a sorting station to divide the organic and non-organic materials. The organic material is then dried and sold to local farmers to use as compost, while the nonorganic is incinerated and sold to re-produce items of less quality such as bags and ropes. The income generated from these sales goes to student scholarships and maintenance costs for school infrastructure. In 2007 the project reaped US$14,000 and collected over 150 tons of plastic waste to become recycled.

Wongpanit, a private waste buying company based in Phitsanulok Province (Thailand), has been expanding across the nation with the initiative of encouraging school students on all levels to collect waste in exchange for a refund. This program helps raise awareness regarding the damage that can be inflicted on the environment and human health when waste is disposed of without care. The company has expanded its purchasing materials from simple plastics and organic waste, to steel, precious metal scraps, paper and glass as well as buying from the general public. With this expansion comes greater need for organisation which has come through the means of more convenient local drop off points for waste, separate waste disposal bins and more promotion of the waste collection incentives.

In countries like Bangladesh, a waste management education project, a joint initiative of Bangladesh Centre for Environmental Education and Centre for Environmental Education (India) is implemented.  This project aim to produce effective tools that would involve the secondary and primary schools in solid waste management (sorting and separation of waste materials) and recycling methods; this would help improve the waste related problems. In Bangladesh has the Environmental Education included in the school curricula but waste management is not. A separate education project as a co- curricular module was established across all the education centers in Bangladesh. The project did not only target the students in schools but also adults were collectively involved and educated in various centers. A teacher’s manual was established, and various books printed to help educate the various persons. Teachers training and writing up the community programs then followed before a countrywide dissemination of the educative project.
In Thailand, the environmental education addresses the current and the future environmental problems in order to protect and remedy the quality of the environment. The government of Thailand has put in place a formal and an informal education to create awareness participation and responsibility for environmental protection. Waste management program is incorporated in the primary and secondary curricula. The schools are linked to the local communities to develop local syllabus. This enhances and promotes learning various waste management principles that include separation of waste material, reuse and recycling the recyclables. The government of Thailand has also incorporated societal environmental literacy at the community levels; thus empowering the community with their effort to manage the local environment.
In Vietnam and the Mekong Delta, non-governmental organizations like Engineers Without Borders (EWB) and Habitat for Humanity are actively involved waste management. EWB has developed training systems to increase awareness to reduce the waste, recycling and compositing for households. Environmental Education (EE) has, however, being included in the school curricula since 2005 though with greater attention in training collages than in primary and secondary schools. The national television has being used as an education strategy by airing a special environmental program at least once per week. However, according to EWB the district of Ah Minh still has a big problem with waste management.

Common Theme’s – Solid Waste Management
BangladeshThailandS.E. VietnamGovernment Policies / SupportvvLittle in RuralEducationvvvSchool Children InvolvementvvvFinancial IncentivesvvvEnvironmental BenefitsvvvCommunity / Adult InvolvementvvvNGO’s and Not for Profit??v
The above table demonstrates strong linkages between the common elements that will ensure a reduction in Solid Waste levels in An Minh.  Applying education and active waste collection programs in schools along with government and community support is the most effective method.

Potential Problems
1234Strength’sExisting successful programs for benchmarkingAvailability of existing training materials & curriculumCan be funded through grants and other government & NGO sourcesProceeds from recyclables feed back into program / childrenWeaknessesPoor transportation infrastructure to support objectivesPsychological mindset of existing adult population resistance to changeAccessibility to adequate recycling facilities to process materialsReliance on school system to drive changeOpportunitiesExploit existing programs to fast track programFamily members engage in learning through their childrenRecycling companies will have increased supply of materialsUse existing programs as Lesson Learnt to minimise risksThreatsExisting program stakeholders with-hold informationInsufficient funds available from the various sourcesRecycling companies cannot cope with increased volumesEducation fails to change attitudes toward waste

Discussion:
Waste management is a major problem in An Minh District. Common waste materials in this area include plastics, chemical agricultural wastes, human waste and food waste. Solid waste volumes are predicted to increase annually throughout Vietnam and from an environmental sustainability and health perspective; this is alarming for such districts as An Minh.  In order to address this increasing threat there is an urgent need to develop a waste management education program.  The waste management education program will be the catalyst for changing the resident’s habits and mind sets in regards to waste disposal.   From such a program, the students would learn on how to collect and separate such waste for recycling which will sensitize students and just as importantly their parents on the negative impacts associated with dumping waste in the public domain and local water ways.
Selection of a Suitable & Sustainable Strategy
Given the facts presented in this report, consideration has been given to the cost of implementing Municipal controlled waste collection services and the impact of the dumping of solid waste into Municipal controlled dump sites.  It has been proven that continued dumping of unsorted Solid Waste has an impact on both the natural environment, namely the Mekong Delta River system, and subsequently human health.  In order to keep operational costs to a minimum and reduce the volume of solid waste being disposed of into the local water ways, public spaces, and municipal dump sites, the intention is to attack the problem at source rather than attempt to deal with the waste as an after-thought. It is better in our view to address the issue as a preventative measure through education and community involvement for long term sustainable environmental and health benefits.
AdvantagesDisadvantagesMunicipal Dump Sites & Collection ServicesTransfer responsibility to authorities to dispose of and it’s easyExpensive, labor intensive, not sustainable in the long term, poor segregation of waste streams, chemical leeching into water streams and high methane outputs from compostable waste.Education & School ProgramLong term sustainability. Builds a large knowledge base that can be put into practice for generations.  Addresses the segregation and treatment of waste streams at source ie green waste through the Bokashi system in the home & School.Longer lead times to see initial gains.  Reliance on individuals to implement and make changes to behaviors regarding waste.  Burden of sorting and recycling placed on families and individuals which could lead to disengagement.

Strategy Discussion:
Education, a Waste Management strategy to reduce the waste problem
Integration and practice of waste management within the education system helps to create solutions that bring real benefits to the environment, the community and its people.  Waste management education is included in the curricula in some countries like Bangladesh, while, in others, enthusiastic individuals and clubs come up with a program to sensitize and practice waste management (Chakraborty, T. R. & Rahman, A. A., 2004, Pp 2-3). However to implement such an education strategy the following needs to be considered:
•    How is the program going to be funded, either through local government institutions such as Education, MoNRE, or through special grants from external sources such as WHO.
•    The school will need to develop policies regarding how the system will work and review its ongoing viability.  A joint effort between schools and/or local authorities can co-develop or utilize existing policies from other like programs.
•    Who will co-ordinate the day to day tasks to ensure the system is sustained and act as the single point of contact.  It may be a teacher, a specially trained staff member of the school or a student volunteer.
•    Identify by means of an audit which materials are going to be collected and segregated for recycling / re-use.
•    Who is going to collect the recycled materials, the frequency of collection and from where?
•    What income can be generated from the recycled materials and what is to be done with those funds?  Disbursement to the children and their families directly or will the funds be used as a scholarship for the children?
Student Involvement:
The involvement of students in the waste reduction program should be considered right from the onset of such a program. The strategy of involving children is that they will take the knowledge and practices from school into the home environment, generating discussions and involving parents in the projects that their children need to do for school.  A common saying is that children are a product of their environment, i.e. their behavior is influenced by their peers.  However environmental education in children also has the effect of influencing parent behavior because they want to set a good example for their children.
Identification of Waste
As a part of the initial assessment, the types of materials to be reused or recycled need to be identified and quantified.  These metrics can then be used to measure the ongoing success of the program, where improvement can be made and reward for effort can be assigned to encourage continued participation. To avoid the potential of overwhelming staff, it’s suggested that only one or two types of waste material for recycling be chosen initially.  This then gives staff the opportunity to remedy system weaknesses, and as the system matures over time, additional materials can be introduced.  In addition to this a clear color coding system, similar to that used in Australia, can be used to help those involved segregate and dispose of the waste in the appropriate bins / facilities.
Location
A suitable space needs to be made available for waste material and should be considered before implementing the program. The planner of such a program needs to consider additional space requirements in case the normal capacity is overwhelmed.
Collection of recycled materials from the Schools
There are several ways to collect the waste materials, for example hiring a hauler to collect the recyclables, or involving a waste management company to collect the waste material, or municipal waste disposal services if they exist.  However there may be a cost associated in doing this which will need further investigation on site.
Costs
Any waste management program comes with a cost; a budget should be drawn considering such as administration costs, haulage fees, cost for any ongoing consumables or commissions pad, if any. After the above considerations, the planner of such a program should establish a way to encourage the volunteers to ensure the staff and the students remain in the program, in which case is not made mandatory. Lastly a method of evaluation of the program should be established.
Funding
To fund the implementation of such projects, grants are available from numerous humanitarian organisations such as the World Bank, The Rufford Foundation and the Ford Foundation.
Funding criteria through The Rufford Foundation are detailed below:
Who / What is eligible:
•    Individuals and small groups
•    Projects outside the first world
•    Critical components of the application:
•    Impact must be pragmatic and measurable and long lasting
•    The grant must make up the majority of the total budget
Funds must be used predominately in the field
Projects should be preferably 12 – 18 months duration
Successful applicants are eligible to receive additional funding of between £6000 – 12000 and up to £25000.
Income
From our research similar school programs exist whereby the plastics the students collect are refunded for cash.  The cash collected from the recycling of plastics is then fed back into the school system and in some cases certain students receive scholarships which assist families to pay for their children’s ongoing education.

COMPOST

Affluence – As is the case in many parts of the developing world, solid waste from rural areas, where people are poorer, has a higher proportion of organic matter, approximately 60 to 75% (Vietnam Environment Monitor 2004. World Bank, MoNRE and CIDA. 65 pp.).

Reduction and segregation at source should be enhanced. It helps take-out food waste for composting (41.9%). Vietnam, for example, is an agricultural country, thereby a big market for compost (Municipal Waste Management Report: Status Quo and Issues in Southeast and East Asian Countries, Part IV, p40).

(Rosana Escobar)
Due to the statistics that a 70 % of rubbish is put in everyday, recycling could be a beneficial process from this by mixed-waste garbage bin to make compost and mulch. Digging compost into garden soil reduces the need for watering by an average of 30%, and because it acts like a fertilizer there is no need to invest money on fertilizers that contaminate landfills as well. In fact based on figures ?????? the tons of organic waste is ??????? Therefore this could potentially reduce the amount of organic waste to landfill by XY%, therefore reducing the potentially harmful GH gas Methane leaching into the environment.

For this there is some necessary information that it has to be follow in order to get the best result out of this recycling procedure.

Bins should have 225 liters capacity, 76cm high by 58 cm across made of plastic.

What is Bokashi composting
Bokashi composting is a practical procedure base on a bucket and a special mix that working together eliminate the odours associated with putrefaction and decay.  From using food waste that only will turn out to contaminate your house and landfill you could make compost and rich juice, that will bring different types of benefits to your house.
Benefits and uses
(http://www.bokashi.com.au/how-does-it-work/bokashi-juice/)
•    Composts all kitchen waste hygienically minus the unpleasant odours and insects
•    Waste is conveniently stored indoors – no need to run outside to the compost bin
•    Bokashi composting, is rapid, occurring in a matter of weeks.
•    It means that less food waste goes into landfill
•    No greenhouse gases – especially methane – are released.
•    Bokashi composting contributes to cleaning up our waterways. When the juice produced is used in toilets, drains and septic systems, the good bacteria compete with harmful bacteria and algae build-up is prevented
•    It reduces your carbon footprint.
•    Bokashi compost enriches and rebuilds soil on a microbial level, with the micro-organisms present injecting life and vitality
•    It produces a rich juice, which, when diluted, is perfect for natural garden fertilisation
•    It saves you money by reducing the need to purchase fertiliser
•    Bokashi compost increases the water holding capacity of soil
•    Bokashi composting adds nutrients to your soil so, if you grow your own produce, more nutrients in the soil = more nutrients in your food!

How does it work?
Put simply, food waste is layered with Bokashi Mix in a Bokashi Bucket. Due to the air-tight bucket and the micro-organisms present in the Bokashi Mix, the waste ferments. It does not decompose inside the bucket, it reduces in volume as the water content of the waste drains through the grate at the bottom of the bucket.
The Bokashi juice produced is alive with micro-organisms and can be used in the garden and around the home. When the bucket is full, the waste is transferred outside and buried beneath the soil to complete the composting process. Breakdown is rapid thanks to the micro-organisms present in the Bokashi Mix. Bokashi compost supplies soil with nutrients from the waste and more life in the form of the micro-organisms. The Bokashi  system significantly accelerates the composting process.

What can i compost?

Just about all kitchen waste, (which is a huge benefit of Bokashi composting over worm farms or traditional composting), although it’s best to avoid large bones and excessive amounts of liquid.
?    fruit and vegetables
?    prepared foods
?    cooked and uncooked meats and fish
?    dairy
?    eggs
?    bread
?    coffee grinds
?    tea bags
wilted flowers and tissues

Step by step
1. Position the plastic grate on the ledge near the bottom of the bucket with the knob upright. Make sure the tap is in the off position.
2. Place your kitchen waste in the bucket and sprinkle a handful of Bokashi One Mix over every layer of waste. As a guide, use approximately 1 tablespoon of mix for every cup of waste. Use more Bokashi One Mix when adding high protein foods, eg meat, fish, cheese and eggs.
3. Check that the lid is closed tightly at all times.
4. Regularly drain the Bokashi juice produced using the tap at the base of the bucket.
5. Repeat this layering process until the Bokashi OneTM bucket is full.
6. Once full, the waste is ready to be buried.
7. If you have two Bokashi OneTM buckets, begin the process again in your second bucket, allowing the contents of the first bucket to continue to ferment. Continue to drain off the Bokashi juice regularly.
8. Wash your Bokashi One bucket after each use.
Burying the Bokashi waste
?    Dig a hole or trench approximately 20-25cm deep. Add the Bokashi waste and mix in some soil. Cover the waste completely with soil. Now forget about it – there’s nothing else to do! Your soil has begun to be enriched on a microbial level.
?    For established gardens, dig the hole around plants or between rows of trees.
?    Be sure roots of very young plants do not come into direct contact with the compost as it may burn them. The compost is acidic when first dug in, but neutralises after 7-10 days. It is best to wait 2 weeks before planting.
?    If you don’t have room to dig a hole every time your bucket needs emptying, you can create a Bokashi compost heap, burying the waste in a regular spot in your garden. Once the waste has completely broken down, use it as a rich top-soil. Bokashi waste can also be added to a conventional compost bin.

Bokashi Juice

The amount of juice your Bokashi kitchen composting system produces depends on the type of food stored in it; so don’t be concerned if little or no juice is produced. Adding fruit and vegetables tends to increase juice production. Be careful not to add too much Bokashi Mix as this can result in reduced juice creation.
Take care with the tap. Do not unscrew more than ¾ of a turn. If you think the tap is blocked, try clearing with a skewer.
Using the juice
1. IN THE GARDEN
BOKASHI JUICE MUST BE DILUTED PRIOR TO USE IN THE GARDEN. READ ON!
Bokashi juice contains nutrients from the food waste and is alive with micro-organisms so it makes a terrific, free fertiliser!
•    To fertilise an existing garden or pot, dilute 1 teaspoon of juice with 2-3 liters of water and apply directly to the soil.
•    To ferltilise trees or shrubs, dilute 2 teaspoons with 2-3 liters of water.

Do not apply directly to the foliage.

2. AROUND THE HOME

Put the concentrated Bokashi juice directly into kitchen and bathroom drains, toilets and septic systems. It will help prevent algae build-up and control odour. And as a huge bonus, it contributes to cleaning up our waterways as the good bacteria compete with the bad bacteria!

Bokashi juice cannot be stored and must be used within 24 hours after draining from the bucket.
Helpful hints for maximising your Bokashi OneTM system

?    Minimise the amount of rotten or mouldy food waste added to the Bokashi OneTM Bucket.
?    Break or chop large waste into smaller pieces.
?    Always close the lid tightly and remember to frequently drain the juice that accumulates at the bottom.
?    Press down every layer of food waste in the bucket to remove air. Try using a potato masher or a pot lid, or pop your hand into a plastic bag.
?    Do not add water or excessive amounts of liquid.
?    Do not place the bucket in the sun.
?    Wash the bucket well after each use.
?    Look into community composting and gardening projects in your area.
?    Don’t be afraid to experiment with the process until you get a feel for how this process can work best for you!

VIDEOS
http://www.bokashi.com.au/how-does-it-work/demonstrator-films/

PRICES
Buckets
From $85?
Bokashi Mix
From $9.90

EM Effective micro organisms activator

It is a mixed culture of fermentative, soilbased and beneficial micro-organisms that brings benefits to different types of environments.

•    Gardening as a soil builder.
•    Household Cleaning to exclude and eliminate harmful bacteria.
•    Pets / Animals as a probiotic to reduce pet odours and for good health.
•    Water purification to reduce algae and harmful bacteria in water.

A really positive aspect of EM is that it doesnt contain any organisms that have been in any way modified. They are species that live naturally in the environment of almost every place in the world and contribute in breaking down the organic matter.

Preparation of EM-Active
Effective Micro-organisms (EM) should be activated before using in the home or garden by
adding water and A+.
DOSAGE:
Use the following calculation to make 1 Litre of EM Active.
• 50 ml EM
• 50 ml Molasses
• 950 ml Water
= 1 litre EM-Active
METHOD:
• Take a 1-litre measure
• Half-fill the measure with lukewarm water
• Dissolve 50 ml of A+ in the measure, stirring well.
• Stir in 50 ml of EM solution.
• Top up to 1 litre with lukewarm wáter

1. In The Home
• Cleaning with EM. EM is a very acidic solution that re-populates surfaces with beneficial
microbes. The presence of these microbes discourages mould, fungus and harmful
bacteria from taking root.
• EM helps to eliminate odours from pets, cigarette smoke, and odour-causing bacteria,
as well.
• A small squirt bottle filled with straight EM is handy to keep by the kitchen sink.
• It can be used to add to water for washing vegetables, to pour down the sink to reduce
odours, and to spray on sponges to keep it fresh and reduce harmful bacteria.
• One teaspoon of EM can be added per load as the washing machine fills with water.
This is recommended for light coloured laundry since the microbes love fabric dyes, and
dark coloured articles have a tendency to fade.) If using EM, reduce detergent to 1/3 the
usual amount. If possible, let the clothes pre-soak for 10-15 minutes before running
through the cycle.
• Use 1 Tbsp of EM to about 5 litres of room temperature water for mopping ceramic tile
or vinyl floors. No detergent is needed. For use on wood floors and furniture, dilute 3/4
tsp. to one 5litres water. Wipe dry immediately.

Add 1 tsp. EM to a litre of water, and spray or wipe on tile, porcelain, and Formica. Let
is stand on wood or plastic cutting boards to discourage salmonella and other harmful
bacteria. Then rinse. This dilution must be used within 3 days.
• Diluted EM can be sprayed lightly in shoes to keep them smelling fresh and on shower
curtains to discourage mould!!
• Clean dustbins & ‘wheelie bins’ with this mixture to reduce odours.
• Use a diluted solution and spray generously on light coloured automobile interior, door
panels, light-coloured upholstery, and carpets to freshen and deodorize.
2. Gardening and Soil Improvement
• Gardening and Soil Improvement EM can be used to inoculate plants, water and soil in
various ways to achieve beneficial results.
• It can be sprayed on soil as a pre-planting treatment, used to inoculate seeds or
transplants, and applied to growing crops as a foliar spray or through irrigation systems.
• EM is useful in growing nursery crops, container-grown plants, and even in hydroponics.
• After crops are harvested, EM is used to help break down crop residues.
• EM can be applied to cover crops and green manures during growth and upon
incorporation into the soil, and is applied to pastures with good results.
• General Directions:
For most crop applications, EM or AEM is diluted with water at a ratio of 1 part EM to
1,000 parts water. Do not apply with pesticides or fungicides. It is best to start on a
small scale and experiment with EM to determine the best methods and ratios for
specific locations.
• Pre-Planting: Between two and three weeks before planting, apply a 1:1000 dilution of
EM to the soil.
• Apply as a spray, drench or introduce into irrigation water.
• Seed Treatment: Gardeners may want to try soaking seeds in a solution of EM before
planting to increase seed viability. Dilute EM with water at 1:1000. Soak seeds in
solution for 5-10 minutes and no longer. Air dry and plant as usual. Experiment with
small batches before treating larger quantities. Weak seeds and soil conditions may
lead to decreased results.
• Nursery / Container-grown Plants: Inoculate with EM at seeding and transplant stages,
then on a monthly basis thereafter. Use the standard dilution of 1:1000.
• Orchid growers have achieved good results by inoculating with EM immediately after
planting in sterile media.
• Hydroponics: In hydroponic crop production systems, EM can be diluted with the
nutrient solution at a rate of 1:10,000. This practice will coat the root systems with
beneficial micro-organisms and make nutrient uptake more efficient.
• Vegetables, Fruits & Herbs: Spray the standard dilution of 1:1000 onto the plants.
• If introducing EM into an irrigation system, the dilution should be increased to 1:10,000.
• Apply as a pre-planting treatment, again at planting/transplanting and every three to four
weeks during crop growth.
• Apply also to crop residues after harvest, just before incorporating residues into the soil.
Use 1 gallon of activated EM per acre, diluted with the appropriate amount of water for
each application.

(The Recycle Works Ltd, Unit 1, Bee Mill, Ribchester, Preston, PR3 3XJ)
www.recycleworks.co.uk

a.    Explain how these will result in a more sustainable city
b.    Cost of Implementation and time period to implement
c.    Compare & contrast your strategies against those applied elsewhere (References needed)
d.    Weaknesses and potential problems
2.    Conclusions:
a.    Summarise findings
b.    Explain “So What?”
c.    Implications for future research or where to next for the city.

Implementation Plan:
YearImplementation Plan1•    Develop strategic Frame work and alliances with Government to obtain funding for school program and NGO’s (i.e Not for Profit Organisations, recycling companies & pickers).
•    Develop financials for refunded plastics / materials to feed back into school program to offset ongoing costs and feed into scholarship program for children.
•    Form alliance with Binh Tuan community schools to benchmark program and curriculum.  Utilise existing curriculum and materials if the fit is right to reduce duplication and reduce lead time to introduction.
•    Determine ongoing maintenance costs of program through benchmarking program at Binh Tuan community.
•    Train the trainers through cooperation with Binh Tuan schools and/or universities alliances
•    Identify materials to be recycled and value of recyclables for income generation.
•    Design location of collection points, bin types, bin colours, sizes and quantities.
•    Develop plans for community education on the segregation of food waste for Bokashi system.  Determine frequency of community education and locations.
•    Set up community volunteers to assist with collection, segregation and recycling efforts. Determine frequency.
•    Develop performance metrics to track volumes of wastes and benefits to the environment via reduction in Green House Gases.
•    Develop strategies for attainment of Bokashi system
o    Option 1: Off the Shelf
o    Option 2: DIY2•    Commence education program in school at all levels
•    Set up recycle bins / stations in locations as per plan
•    Commence recycling school waste as introductory efforts in the first six months then there after encourage students to bring targeted waste in from home.
•    Collect funds from recycled materials from recycler at defined intervals and use funds as planned
•    Conduct planned community volunteer events to collect, segregate and recycle
•    Commence introduction of Bokashi system to community based program explain how the system work by conducting demonstration.  Communicate benefits for the family and the environment at the household level and where the bi-product can used.
3•    Plan commercialisation opportunities for locals in the recycling of plastics and compostable food waste.

Vietnamese School Children Recycle Plastic to Fund Scholarships

A Look at Vietnam’s Plastic Craft Villages

Scrap and Trade: Scavenging Myths


Recycling
Recycling is not a common practice. There are however private companies operating in the An Minh district that go from house to house in boats along the canals buying recyclable materials. Households get paid for plastic, paper, bags and cans. The families do not get paid much for recyclables but it does promote recycling and offers an alternative for throwing waste into the canals. Unfortunately recycling is still not that commonly practiced.
The collectors will sort the recyclable materials and then sell them onto larger recycling centres for a profit. The nearest recycling centre is located in Ca Mau and Ho Chi Minh City. (EWB)

PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT 🙂