Bivalent Conceptions of Air Pollution

Read the two articles attached and then answer the following questions:

Fumes Across the Fence Line: This report makes the case that African-American communities are unjustly affected by pollution from oil and gas facilities. As you read, pay careful attention to the basis on which the authors claim that the effects are unjust: are they unjust because they are unequal, or something else? Think about how Nancy Fraser might talk about this issue. She doesn’t consider pollution or fenceline communities in her model. Do you think the concept of participatory parity would still apply?

For homework, please respond to the following:

  1. Give two or three distinct examples where the report talks about injustice explicitly in terms of inequality. What kind of language do the authors use to let you know that the issue is inequality?
  2. In chapter 4, the report gives four (numbered) policy recommendations. For each one, please say which of Fraser’s two types of redistribution and four types of recognition it represents, and explain why.
  3. In chapter 3, the report gives statistics to show that a large number of African-American people are affected by oil refineries, but it does not tell us a lot about who else may or may not be affected. Using the U.S. census, create additional statistics that can help put that data in context and tell us something about equity or inequity in impacts. It may be helpful to zoom in on one or more of the refineries profiled in the case studies: PES in Philadelphia would be one good choice.