Calcium and Phosphate

Analyze how calcium and phosphate are hormonally regulated and describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation and treatments for hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. Describe the clinical manifestations, similarities, and differences of the following vitamin deficiencies: niacin, riboflavin (B2), thiamine (B1), folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid (B5), biotin, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin E, vitamin A, and vitamin D. Describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Discuss how and when each of the buffer systems responds to compensate/correct for acid-base imbalances. Use at least one scholarly source other than your textbook to connect your response to national guidelines and evidence-based research in support of your ideas.