Read the additioanl files to see the datials about this assessment. please to write this case study reoprt in clearly structure and plases match the in-text reference and reference list.
Country/Researched country Power Distance Individualism Masculinity Uncertainty avoidance Pragmatism Indulgence
Spain Key findings Existence of inequality higher than world average Importance to self and one’s family relationships Feminine country
Equal imp to men and women Avoid uncertainty by planning
Accept calculated risks Respect for traditions
Live in present without concerning about future Positive emotions are less freely expressed
Happiness, freedom, leisure not important
HRM Implications Power is centralized, subordinates don’t have power to take initiative Team work
No need of motivation from Mgt for team work Managers take decisions by consulting their subordinates Managers need clear answers
Give clear instructions Need clear structures and well defined rules Actions are restrained by social norms
Singapore Key findings Ruler-subject
Relationships based on mutual and complementary obligations Collectivist society
Look after each other in exchange of loyalty
Harmony & respect Softer aspects like levelling others, consensus, sympathy Self motivated, competitive on motivational assumptions
People abide by rules
Called themselves as Fine Country Long term investments such as perseverance, sustained efforts
Slow results Scored intermediate and it is difficult to define key ideas under this dimension
HRM Implications Power centralized
Managers rely on bosses and rules, control expected
Attitude – formal, indirect comm., selective flow of information Indirect communication,
Open conflicts are avoided
Managers calmness & respectability is very important Conflicts avoided in work life and consensus is important Nondirective leadership styles
Smaller organizations & less formalise Emphasizing on virtue
Always keep their options open
Japan Key findings Follow hierarchical order Collectivist
Live in order to work Due to natural disasters –learned to prepared for any uncertainty
Planning for security for nation See life as short moment
Lives guided by virtues & practical examples
Focus on education Leisure time not imp
Imp to own norms and social norms
HRM Implications Hierarchical order
No participation of subordinate in decision making Loyal to company
Mgt decision within the group
In-group decisions are situational Masculine society – Employees are motivate when they in race
No higher positions given to female Facts & figures required for decision making
Australia Key findings Power is equally distributed Self-dependent and self image as I Competitive behaviour
To be the best
To win race scored intermediate score and it does not indicate any preference under this dimension Societal changes not fully trusted, less focus on future results Enjoy life and fulfil desires
Willingness to Spend money
HRM Implications Hierarchy is established for convenience
Direct flow of communication
Subordinates can easily access their superiors. Employees growth dependents on individual capabilities Performance based decisions
Competitive behaviour Focus on currents goals for quick results Freely share the ideas
Norway Key findings Freedom to take decisions Self is important
Individual opinions expressed & valued Nurturing
Second feminine country Scored intermediate and it does not indicate any preference under this dimension Strong concern to establish truth
Value for traditions Scored intermediate and it does not indicate any preference under this dimension
HRM Implications Can share ideas Emp & emp’yer relationship based on contract
Focus on mgt of individuals
Clear diff between work & home Female workers are more respectable, no difference in pay rates Focus on quick results
Greece Key findings Hierarchy respected & inequality accepted
Show respect to elders Strong bond
Caring & protective Masculinity
Aims for success Scored highest 100
Not comfortable in ambiguous situations Intermediate score – both rigid & flexible Two different types of people
Weak & strong control of desires
HRM Implications Centralized distribution of power among employees
Subordinates-followers Older family members are expected to help younger in work Passionate and demonstrative to express their emotions Practical & realistic
Assessment 1 —-Memo
This memo compares the tourism and hospitality industry in Philippines and Singapore, and the implication of Hofsted’s management theory on the two countries. The memo will highlight the key drivers of Singapore economy including their global strategy and their advantages and disadvantages, compare the different implication of the Hofstede cultural dimension on the two countries including Power distance, Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Pragmatism and indulgence.
Country-An introduction (Singapore)
Singapore economic growth rate has been growing very steadily and on Feb 14, 2007 their economic growth rate was 7.9 percent. Singapore’s total trade by the year 2000 was $373 billion. The largest trading partner of Singapore is Malaysia, and bilateral trade between the two countries was roughly $91 billion in 2012. Singapore’s primary exports include: Electronic components, Telecommunication gadgets, petroleum products, air crafts, motor vehicles and steel (Johannes, 2003).
The success of Singapore trade is because of the various trade agreements they have signed. Singapore has an existing free trade agreement with the entire ASEAN region. They have another beneficial trade agreement, which allow them to trade at reduced import duties in the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand (Johannes, 2003).
According to Hofstede, the power distance refers to the extent in which the society agrees that power in organizations is distributed unequally among individuals. Singapore has a predominantly Chinese population and ranks 74 on the power distance index, while Philippines is ranked 94. That means the people of Philippines have strong values and follow a strict hierarchical relationship in the society (Jo Ann Meriwether Craig, 1993, p.18), most people in Philippines be dependent on a leader and the power should not hide their power. High power distance also showed that has social class, elite education in human resources management and large different between management and worker. This gives the managers of the hotels power to motivate workers and encourage good results and high performance. In contract, Singapore has a little bit small wage difference between management and worker.
Hofstede states that there are some cultures that value the freedom of some individual more highly than others. Philippines (32) has higher Individualism score than Singapore (20) that means the management selection in Philippines that based on individual traits and they prefer to look after themselves only. For Singapore, people prefer to the group membership in management selection and they think “we” is much important than “I” which means they can look after each other. Individualism allows for more innovation and more flexible rules that attract tourists. For tourism and hospitality, they can cover the whole environment of the organizations.
According to Hofstede it is possible to identify the extent to which culture shows characteristics that traditionally were associated with masculinity, for example, concern and nurturing. Singapore is considered more masculine than Philippines where they score 48 and 64 respectively. It showed that Singapore was in the middle of the scale, looked like balance between masculinity and femininity. In contract, that Philippines people has jobs gender identified in management selection, men should be decisive. They are also assertive and dominant. The importance of masculinity is it enables organizations find the correct workforce.
This refers to how much a country’s culture allows for the acceptance of rules and customs to avoid uncertainty. Singapore (8) has much lower than the Philippines (44) when it comes to the uncertainty avoidance index that means Singaporeans are self-motivated, competitive on motivational assumptions and nondirective in the leadership styles, they also just has smaller organizations and less formalizes. High uncertainty avoidance can encourages innovation that brings increased hospitality and tourism in Philippines.
This is an approach that asses the truths in beliefs by their success in practical application. Philippines got lower score than Singapore which were 27 and 72 that showed Singapore can take more pragmatic approach. This ensures that only the beliefs that help organizations in the hospitality and tourism sector are considered.
It refers to taking part in something just because you want to. Singapore has a higher indulgence index than Philippines which were 46 and 42 that means Singaporeans can make a stronger control then Philippines people. With a low score of Philippines showed the society have a tendency to cynicism and despondence, when a culture is more indulgent then they can enjoy their work without any motivation for money or material.
The Effect of National Culture on cooperate Culture and HRM
As the result of each model, it showed that Singaporeans can make a good communication between boss and employees which is an important thing in HR management (Woodside et al, 2008), organizations should localize the culture and management practices to fit with Singapore and the result also showed that Singaporeans belong to ‘in group’ which means they know how team work is important in the organizations. I can agree with that ‘Singapore is a fine country and they will get fine for everything’ (The Hofstede Centre).
Culture reflects the values and norms of a particular society, it is then very clear that it has an impact on tourism and hospitality. Culture has a big effect on people’s consumption (Hopkins 2009). To an organization to be successful in another country, they should have both knowledge and understanding with the local culture. The statistical research done by Hofstede should enable everybody to know that people in other countries may feel and act than you.
Assessment 2 – (50 marks)
Purpose: To analyse the various IHRM and Multinational organisation issues identified in Assignment 1 and then apply this research to a sustainable HR practices by creating a management scenario.
Format: Case study report.
With a significant volume of research having been presented in the first assessment, you are now being asked to capitalise on this shared knowledge. This is an important step in the development of your peer review skills and will allow you to understand the varying depths of knowledge and awareness of your peers. You will start with a one page summary of your key findings from your peer review.
Once developed, you will be asked to play the role of Global Director of HR for a large international T&H (Tourism and Hospitality) firm (for example, Inter-Continental Hotels). You will be required to report to the executive team on some of the key IHRM issues such as communication, expatriates and corporate culture issues that will arise with the deployment and engagement of a T&H workforce at two new sites in two countries of your choice. (To find the Hotel to be the example)
Choose one of the following Home Countries:
Home Countries: India, Nepal, China, United States, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, New Zealand, Malaysia
(Maybe United States)
Choose two of the following Other Counties:
Other countries: Australia, Canada, Brazil, Thailand, Spain, Norway, Singapore, Japan, Mexico and Greece
(Maybe Singapore and Japan)
Step 2 – Considering the expansion of an International T&H firm (based in your home country) into your ‘two additional countries’, create a table of the key cultural and HRM issues that you believe would impact decisions with a brief explanation as to why they are important. This table will become an appendix within your report.
Country Cultural and Corporate Culture factors IHRM factors (such as labour factors, diversity, expats, unions etc) Strategic relevance and possible management recommendations
Country (Expansion 1)
Country (Expansion 2)
Step 3 – As the Global Director of HR, take the key findings from Steps 1 & 2 and develop a report to be presented to the CEO (see report template). Steps 1 and 2 will be included in this report for practicality reasons and once these have been done, you will need to provide an organisation overview and position description. Initially you will need to identify the international T&H organisation (fictitious or existing) and describe the location of head office along with the two additional countries organisations. For example, if you were to choose an International Hotel chain, you would need to describe Head Office and where it is located. You would then describe the two hotels and their locations in the ‘host’ country. Once complete, provide an overview of your role as the Global Director of HR. You are encouraged to look beyond the fundamentals of ‘hiring and firing’ towards some of the strategic capabilities and functions you would expect from this role.
Step 4 – Continuing on with your report, you will seek to deliver the most ‘strategically relevant’ findings regarding the T&H workforce relevant to the expansion and formulate several management recommendations (these recommendations may be further detailed in Step 6). For example, you may have established that expansion country 1 has a strong Union movement that dictates many of the employment contracts or that the home country corporate values may be significantly different. You would then seek to explain the relevance of this in terms of hiring locals versus expatriates and then consider key strategies to ensure the transition into the new country is seamless and trouble free.
Step 5 – In additional to the above, your CEO has discussed the importance of sustainability across all branches and departments of the organisation. They have requested your direction on sustainable HR practices, wanting to understand the importance of these to the organisation into the future. From the list posited by Baum (2006) below (refer Topic 1 of the study guide also), identify ONE and illustrate its importance and relevance in terms of your organisation
Recruitment and staff turnover; promotion and career development; rewards and benefits; education; training and development; management culture; and labour-market planning.
Step 6 – And finally, you need to pull it all together and summarise your key findings and draft a set of proposed IHRM strategies and recommendations.
Please complete the report with the following format
An executive summary is just that, a summary (and is not included in your total word count for this assessment). It contains a statement of report purpose and an overview of the actual and specific findings. For this assessment, it should be no less than one page and no more than two pages. The summary can only be written after you have completed your report. Write in ‘past’ tense (e.g. The purpose of this report was to …) and do not use ‘first-person’ such as ‘I’ or ‘my’. If an executive summary is well written the reader should be able to understand the main points, findings, and conclusions of the actual report without having to read the full report.
This is a brief statement of the purpose of the report, what its objectives are, and an overview of how the report is structured. In addition, you are to disclose your home (parent) country and the two additional (host) countries that will be addressed throughout your assignment. It is suggested that you keep this section to about a paragraph.
Peer review of Assessment 1 (500 words – 8 Marks)
As discussed in step 1, your discussion here should summarise key findings and highlight points of relevance specific to your home country and two additional countries. The language here should be of a critical nature, exploring the information presented by your peers. Although you will use this section to introduce some of the areas of focus in the responses and recommendations offered below, you should focus on the nature of the information provided, its integrity and consistency (or lack of).
Cultural and IHRM factors of your home and expansion countries (250 words – 5 marks)
This section should include the narrative regarding your table prepared for step 2. Your goal here will be to present the key information in a neat, concise format that a busy CEO would be looking for. The marker will be able to refer to your table as required however a well written summary should alleviate this need. The table is included in the 5 marks but not in the word count (the more detail in your table, the greater the reference tool you have for the balance of your assessment.
Organisation overview and position description (250 words – 5 Marks)
You need to clearly identify the type of organisation you have chosen and define some of the key responsibilities you have as Global Director of HR. With regards to your organisation, it could be fictitious or existing. If you were to choose an International Hotel chain, you would need to describe Head Office and where it is located. You would then describe the two hotels and their locations in the ‘host’ country. With regards to the responsibilities and strategic capabilities of the Global Director of HR, you may wish to support your discussion with a position description (limit the PD to one page and include in your appendices or as an image embedded within your report).
The tourism and hospitality workforce (500 words – 8 Marks)
Here you are seeking to clearly articulate the type of T&H workforce that is present in the two additional ‘host’ countries and how they differ from your ‘home’ country of origin. What are the current labour factors including seasonality, cultural boundaries, available workforce, union and/or government guidelines and pay conditions (this list is not exhaustive and you are encouraged to explore factors relevant to your organisation and the host countries). A discussion will also need to be had as to whether you should look only at internal candidates who are parent country nationals (PCNs) or recruit host country nationals (HCNs). Make sure you address the advantages and disadvantages of both.
Senior management expatriate strategies (250 words – 5 Marks)
Irrespective of the discussion regarding PCNs and HCNs you will need to discuss and analyse the relevance of expatriates in terms of international assignments and the advantages and disadvantages for your chosen organisation. It is important to note that just because an ‘expat’ strategy is appropriate for one host country does not mean that it would suit the other.
The management team has asked you to conduct Internet-based research to find out what expatriate support services are available in your additional two countries. You should create a list of the services that are available and provide details of at least one organization which could provide the services. These services should then be listed (in a table) in order of priority for the expatriates with justification for the reasons for prioritizing the services (note that the table will not be part of the word count and should be included in your appendices or as an image embedded within your report).
Sustainable HR practices (500 words – 8 marks)
Baum (2006) sustainable HR practices were based around six themes: recruitment and staff turnover; promotion and career development; rewards and benefits; education; training and development; management culture; and labour-market planning. Select ONE of the six themes and illustrate how your company’s global HR policies and practices will be sustainable.
–identify which ONE of the six themes that you have selected
–identify why you selected this theme
–outline why these policies or practices are important to this company
–what are the implications of these HR policies and practices on global Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) practice?
–what are the implications for this company’s continued success?
–cite academic secondary sources that provide a theoretical framework for these policies or practices
Recommendations (500 words – 8 Marks)
Here you will summarise many of your key findings and draft a set of proposed HRM strategies. Essentially you will be confirming your research and discussion from above in a concise set of strategies and recommendations. You may refer to the table (see step 2) in your discussion and use this section as a supporting narrative or you may wish to develop a set of key bullet points. This section may also be useful in terms of information that you were unable to include in earlier sections.
Within this section restate the purpose of the report, and then provide an overview of main points covered in your analysis. Ensure that you do not include any new information, only that which has been discussed within the main body of the report.
All works cited in the body of your assessment must be included in your reference list. Please match the in-text reference and reference list!
Here you will submit your table as per step 2 – see below. As to whether you include any further material (or the items listed in Steps 3 and 5) is optional but generally you would include relevant material which would have otherwise disrupted the logical flow of your report e.g. business data reports. Material included in this section will not count towards the overall word count for this assessment.
Country Cultural and Corporate Culture factors IHRM factors (such as labour factors, diversity, expats, unions etc) Strategic relevance and possible management recommendations
Country (Expansion 1)
Country (Expansion 2)
Marking Sheet – Assignment 2(Global Director of IHRM Report – 50%)
Excellent Very Good Adequate Needs some more work Needs a lot more work Allocated Marks
Peer review (8 marks)
Student has clearly identified the home country and additional two countries
Key findings and highlights presented.
Discussion regarding the integrity and consistency of information
Cultural and IHRM factors (5 marks)
Table prepared and included in appendix
All three columns populated with relevant points
Narrative presented in a concise manner, summarising most relevant points for consideration by the CEO
Organisation overview and position description (5 marks)
Described organisation including head office
Described the role of Global Director of HR
Identified key ‘strategic’ capabilities/competencies
The T&H workforce (8 marks)
Presented the most strategically relevant findings
Identified key differences between the host countries and home country.
Discussion regarding the use of PCNs versus HCNs.
Senior management expat strategies (5 marks)
Discussed the relevance of expatriates
Analysed the advantages and disadvantages
Relevance of expat support services
Identification of at least one organisation to provide support services
Sustainable HR practices (8 marks)
Identified theme and outlined reason for choosing
Discussed relevance to the organisation
Identified and analysed implications
Findings based on academic/theoretical research
Recommendations (8 marks)
Logical and appropriate set of strategies and recommendations
Strategies and recommendations clearly linked to overall report
Presentation (3 marks)
Final mark out of 50
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