Chapter 1: Buildings

Chapter 1: Buildings
D1: Building Structural Types

The following descriptions are from FEMA 356: Pre-standard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.  They are the same basic descriptions and identifying symbols as found also in FEMA 310: Handbook for the Seismic Evaluation of Buildings.
Description of Model Building Types
•    Wood Light Frame:  W1: W1A:
•    Wood Frames, Commercial and Industrial:  W2:
•    Steel Moment Frames:  S1: S1A:
•    Steel Braced Frames:  S2:
•    Steel Light Frames:  S3:
•    Steel Frames with Concrete Shear Walls:  S4:
•    Steel Frame with Infill Masonry Shear Walls:  S5: S5A:
•    Concrete Moment Frames:  C1:
•    Concrete Shear Wall Buildings:  C2: C2A:
•    Concrete Frame with Infill Masonry Shear Walls:  C3: C3A:
•    Precast/Tilt-up Concrete Shear Wall Buildings:  PC1: PC1A:
•    Precast Concrete Frames:  PC2: PC2A:
•    Reinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings with Flexible Diaphragms:  RM1:
•    Reinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings with Stiff Diaphragms:  RM2:
•    Unreinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings:  URM: URMA:
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Wood Light Frame :
W1: These buildings are single or multiple family dwellings of one or more stories in height. Building loads are light and the framing spans are short. Floor and roof framing consists of wood joists or rafters on wood studs spaced no more than 24 inches apart. The first floor framing is supported directly on the foundation, or is raised up on cripple studs and post and beam supports. The foundation consists of spread footings constructed on concrete, concrete masonry block, or brick masonry in older construction. Chimneys, when present, consist of solid brick masonry, masonry veneer, or wood frame with internal metal flues. Lateral forces are resisted by wood frame diaphragms and shear walls. Floor and roof diaphragms consist of straight or diagonal lumber sheathing, tongue and groove planks, oriented strand board, or plywood. Shear walls consist of straight or lumber sheathing, plank siding, oriented strand board, plywood, stucco, gypsum board, particle board, or fiberboard. Interior partitions are sheathed with plaster or gypsum board.

W1A: These buildings are multi-story, similar in construction to W1 buildings, but have openings in the lowest level exterior walls framed with post-and-beam construction.
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Wood Frames, Commercial and Industrial
W2: These buildings are commercial or industrial buildings with a floor area of 5,000 square feet or more. There are few, if any, interior walls. The floor and roof framing consists of wood or steel trusses, glulam or steel beams, and wood posts or steel columns. Lateral forces are resisted by wood diaphragms and exterior stud walls sheathed with plywood, oriented strand board, stucco, plaster, straight or diagonal wood sheathing, or braced with rod bracing. Wall openings for storefronts and garages, when present, are framed by post-and-beam framing.
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Steel Moment Frames
S1: These buildings consist of a frame assembly of steel beams and steel columns. Floor and roof framing consists of cast-in-place concrete slabs or metal deck with concrete fill supported on steel beams, open web joists, or steel trusses. Lateral forces are resisted by steel moment frames that develop their stiffness through rigid or semi-rigid beam-column connections. When all connections are moment-resisting connections, the entire frame participates in lateral force resistance. When only selected connections are moment-resisting connections, resistance is provided along discrete frame lines. Columns may be oriented so that each principal direction of the building has columns resisting forces in strong axis bending. Diaphragms consist of concrete or metal deck with concrete fill and are stiff relative to the frames. When the exterior of the structure is concealed, walls consist of metal panel curtain walls, glazing, brick masonry, or precast concrete panels. When the interior of the structure is finished, frames are concealed by ceilings, partition walls, and architectural column furring. Foundations consist of concrete-spread footings or deep pile foundations.
S1A: These buildings are similar to S1 buildings, except that diaphragms consist of wood framing or untopped metal deck, and are flexible relative to the frames.

Steel Braced Frames
S2: These buildings have a frame of steel columns, beams, and braces. Braced frames develop resistance to lateral forces by the bracing action of the diagonal members. The braces induce forces in the associated beams and columns such that all elements work together in a manner similar to a truss, with all element stresses being primarily axial. When the braces do not completely triangulate the panel, some of the members are subjected to shear and flexural stresses; eccentrically braced frames are one such case. Diaphragms transfer lateral loads to braced frames. The diaphragms consist of concrete or metal deck with concrete fill and are stiff relative to the frames. S2A: These buildings are similar to S2 buildings, except that diaphragms consist of wood framing or untopped metal deck, and are flexible relative to the frames.

Steel Light Frames
S3: These buildings are pre-engineered and prefabricated with transverse rigid steel frames. They are one story in height. The roof and walls consist of lightweight metal, fiberglass or cementitious panels. The frames are designed for maximum efficiency and the beams and columns consist of tapered, built-up sections with thin plates. The frames are built in segments and assembled in the field with bolted or welded joints. Lateral forces in the transverse direction are resisted by the rigid frames. Lateral forces in the longitudinal direction are resisted by wall panel shear elements or rod bracing. Diaphragm forces are resisted by untopped metal deck, roof panel shear elements, or a system of tensiononly rod bracing.

Steel Frames with Concrete Shear Walls
S4: These buildings consist of a frame assembly of steel beams and steel columns. The floors and roof consist of cast-inplace concrete slabs or metal deck with or without concrete fill. Framing consists of steel beams, open web joists or steel trusses. Lateral forces are resisted by cast-in-place concrete shear walls. These walls are bearing walls when the steel frame does not provide a complete vertical support system. In older construction, the steel frame is designed for vertical loads only. In modern dual systems, the steel moment frames are designed to work together with the concrete shear walls in proportion to their relative rigidity. In the case of a dual system, the walls shall be evaluated under this building type and the frames shall be evaluated under S1 or S1A, Steel Moment Frames. Diaphragms consist of concrete or metal deck with or without concrete fill. The steel frame may provide a secondary lateral-forceresisting system depending on the stiffness of the frame and the moment capacity of the beam-column connections.

Steel Frame with Infill Masonry Shear Walls
S5: This is an older type of building construction that consists of a frame assembly of steel beams and steel columns. The floors and roof consist of cast-in-place concrete slabs or metal deck with concrete fill. Framing consists of steel beams, open web joists or steel trusses. Walls consist of infill panels constructed of solid clay brick, concrete block, or hollow clay tile masonry. Infill walls may completely encase the frame members, and present a smooth masonry exterior with no indication of the frame. The seismic performance of this type of construction depends on the interaction between the frame and infill panels. The combined behavior is more like a shear wall structure than a frame structure. Solidly infilled masonry panels form diagonal compression struts between the intersections of the frame members. If the walls are offset from the frame and do not fully engage the frame members, the diagonal compression struts will not develop. The strength of the infill panel is limited by the shear capacity of the masonry bed joint or the compression capacity of the strut. The post-cracking strength is determined by an analysis of a moment frame that is partially restrained by the cracked infill. The diaphragms consist of concrete floors and are stiff relative to the walls.

S5A: These buildings are similar to S5 buildings, except that diaphragms consist of wood sheathing or untopped metal deck, or have large aspect ratios and are flexible relative to the walls.
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Concrete Moment Frames
C1: These buildings consist of a frame assembly of cast-in-place concrete beams and columns. Floor and roof framing consists of cast-in-place concrete slabs, concrete beams, one-way joists, two-way waffle joists, or flat slabs. Lateral forces are resisted by concrete moment frames that develop their stiffness through monolithic beam-column connections. In older construction, or in regions of low seismicity, the moment frames may consist of the column strips of two-way flat slab systems. Modern frames in regions of high seismicity have joint reinforcing, closely spaced ties, and special detailing to provide ductile performance. This detailing is not present in older construction. Foundations consist of concrete-spread footings or deep pile foundations.

Concrete Shear Wall Buildings
C2: These buildings have floor and roof framing that consists of cast-in-place concrete slabs, concrete beams, one-way joists, two-way waffle joists, or flat slabs. Floors are supported on concrete columns or bearing walls. Lateral forces are resisted by cast-in-place concrete shear walls. In older construction, shear walls are lightly reinforced, but often extend throughout the building. In more recent construction, shear walls occur in isolated locations and are more heavily reinforced with concrete slabs and are stiff relative to the walls. Foundations consist of concrete-spread footings or deep pile foundations.
C2A: These buildings are similar to C2 buildings, except that diaphragms consist of wood sheathing, or have large aspect ratios, and are flexible relative to the walls.

Concrete Frame with Infill Masonry Shear Walls
C3: This is an older type of building construction that consists of a frame assembly of cast-in-place concrete beams and columns. The floors and roof consist of cast-in-place concrete slabs. Walls consist of infill panels constructed of solid clay brick, concrete block, or hollow clay tile masonry. The seismic performance of this type of construction depends on the interaction between the frame and the infill panels. The combined behavior is more like a shear wall structure than a frame structure. Solidly infilled masonry panels form diagonal compression struts between the intersections of the frame members. If the walls are offset from the frame and do not fully engage the frame members, the diagonal compression struts will not develop. The strength of the infill panel is limited by the shear capacity of the masonry bed joint or the compression capacity of the strut. The post-cracking strength is determined by an analysis of a moment frame that is partially restrained by the cracked infill. The shear strength of the concrete columns, after racking of the infill, may limit the semiductile behavior of the system. The diaphragms consist of concrete floors and are stiff relative to the walls.
C3A: These buildings are similar to C3 buildings, except that diaphragms consists of wood sheathing or untopped metal deck, or have large aspect ratios and are flexible relative to the walls.
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Precast/Tilt-up Concrete Shear Wall Buildings
PC1: These buildings are one or more stories in height and have precast concrete perimeter wall panels that are cast on site and tilted into place. Floor and roof framing consists of wood joists, glulam beams, steel beams or open web joists. Framing is supported on interior steel columns and perimeter concrete bearing walls. The floors and roof consist of wood sheathing or untapped metal deck. Lateral forces are resisted by the precast concrete perimeter wall panels. Wall panels may be solid, or have large window and door openings which cause the panels to behave more as frames than as shear walls. In older construction, wood framing is attached to the walls with wood ledgers. Foundations consist of concrete-spread footings or deep pile foundations.
PC1A: These buildings are similar to PC1 buildings, except that diaphragms consist of precast elements, cast-in-place concrete, or metal deck with concrete fill, and are stiff relative to the walls.

Precast Concrete Frames
PC2: These buildings consist of a frame assembly of precast concrete girders and columns with the presence of shear walls. Floor and roof framing consists of precast concrete planks, tees or double-tees supported on precast concrete girders and columns. Lateral forces are resisted by precast or cast-in-place concrete shear walls. Diaphragms consist of precast elements interconnected with welded inserts, cast-in-place closure strips, or reinforced concrete topping slabs.
PC2A: These buildings are similar to PC2 buildings, except that concrete shear walls are not present. Lateral forces are resisted by precast concrete moment frames that develop their stiffness through beam-column joints rigidly connected by welded inserts or cast-in-place concrete closures. Diaphragms consist of precast elements interconnected with welded inserts, cast-in-place closure strips, or reinforced concrete topping slabs.
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Reinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings with Flexible Diaphragms
RM1: These buildings have bearing walls that consist of reinforced brick or concrete block masonry. Wood floor and roof framing consists of steel beams or open web joists, steel girders and steel columns. Lateral forces are resisted by the reinforced brick or concrete block masonry shear walls. Diaphragms consist of straight or diagonal wood sheathing, plywood, or untopped metal deck, and are flexible relative to the walls. Foundations consist of brick or concrete-spread footings.

Reinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings with Stiff Diaphragms
RM2: These building are similar to RM1 buildings, except that the diaphragms consist of metal deck with concrete fill, precast concrete planks, tees, or double-tees, with or without a cast-in-place concrete topping slab, and are stiff relative to the walls. The floor and roof framing is supported on interior steel or concrete frames or interior reinforced masonry walls.

Unreinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings
URM: These buildings have perimeter bearing walls that consist of unreinforced clay brick masonry. Interior bearing walls, when present, also consist of unreinforced clay brick masonry. In older construction, floor and roof framing consists of straight or diagonal lumber sheathing supported by wood joists, which are supported on posts and timbers. In more recent construction, floors consist of structural panel or plywood sheathing rather than lumber sheathing. The diaphragms are flexible relative to the walls. When they exist, ties between the walls and diaphragms consist of bent steel plates or government anchors embedded in the mortar joints and attached to framing. Foundations consist of brick or concrete-spread footings.
URMA: These buildings are similar to URM buildings, except that the diaphragms are stiff relative to the unreinforced masonry walls and interior framing. In older construction or large, multistory buildings, diaphragms consist of cast-in-place concrete. In regions of low seismicity, more recent construction consists of metal deck and concrete fill supported on steel framing.
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