Chapter 4 Objectives

Chapter 4 Objectives
In this chapter, students will learn the following:
• The four distinctive features of melody
• Scale systems in Western Music
• Scale-like systems in non-Western musics
• An introduction to chords and harmonization in Western and non-Western musics
Overview
Pitch is the element of music determined by its frequency. Tones may have either determinate or indeterminate pitch. One melody may be distinguished from another by its basic features such as range, direction, character, and contour.
Each musical culture has its own pitch system in which an octave is divided into a set number of pitches and organized into pitch systems including the Western scales and similar systems unique to other musical cultures. Each culture also has its process for modulation, ornamentation, etc.
A brief introduction to the relation of pitch to chords and harmony with both Western and non-Western systems concludes the chapter.

Chapter 4 Part 1: Information
1. Define the following terms:
Key Terms Definitions, Explanations, or Comments
Tonic

Scale

Octave

Range

Major scale

Melody

Key

Pentatonic scale

Minor scales

Interval

Blues scale

Modulation

Microtones

Ornamentation

Articulation

Legato

Staccato

Mode

Chord

Harmony

Chord progression

Harmonization

Arpeggio

Chapter 4 Journal
Part 2: The Textbook Online Music Illustrations and the Annenberg Video Exploring the World of Music – 6. Melody
Listen to all of the Online Musical Illustrations for Chapter 4. Click on the link below to access our textbook website for the Musical Illustrations.
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526649/student_view0/musical_illustrations.html
These 11 Musical Illustrations will help you to better understand many of the terms above and enhance your critical listening skills.
Read the chapter and listen to the Illustrations as they come up in the chapter.
Repeated listening is a must as you begin to notice what to listen for in each Illustration.
2. Write down anything you notice as you listen to these 11 Musical Illustrations. Identify each of your responses by writing the corresponding Musical Illustration Number and its name – such as Musical Illustration Number 8 – Blues Scale.
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526649/student_view0/musical_illustrations.html

For question #3 below, view and respond to this excellent video from Annenberg Media – the topic (most appropriate for Chapter 4) is (6. Melody).
Exploring the World of Music
http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1242
Once there, scroll down to “6. Melody” and click on the VOD box to start the video.
3. Be sure to write down anything that is new to you or is now clarified, (better understood). List your observations and comments.

Chapter 4 Music Journal
Part 3: Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Listen to all of the music examples and the online Musical Illustrations from Chapter 4 and in the Annenberg video. Which of these did you enjoy the most? Why?

Of the musical examples and the online Musical Illustrations in this chapter, and the music from the Annenberg video, which did you find to be challenging to listen to? Why?

Other thoughts or comments about Chapter 4, the online Musical Illustrations, and the Annenberg video on Melody.

Additional sources to consider for Chapter 4:
Hopi/Pueblo Eagle Dance performances: historic footage and Native American Dance Theater concert footage.

This website provides details on the physics of music; many of the sources are constructed to answer non-specialist questions about music acoustics. Especially interesting are the discussions on harmonic singing and the physics of the didjeridu. From the University of New South Wales.
http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/

A website for learning about the fundamentals of music. Includes explanatory material, tutorials, exercises, articles, and references. Established in 1997 by José Rodríguez Alvira; includes drills in English and Spanish.?http://www.teoria.com/

Complete the following and save it in WORD (.docx).
Attach a file of the same (and do a copy/paste into the text box too as a back up) and submit right here in the
Chapter 5 Music Journal Assignment
Your Name
Chapter 5 Objectives
In this chapter, you will learn the following:
• The element of dynamics, having to do with the relative loudness and softness of tones
• The element of timbre, which relates to the sound quality or “tone quality” of a sound
• Musical instruments, the actual material objects (including the human body) responsible for generating the tones we hear in music and their classification through the Sachs-Hornbostel system
Overview
Dynamic ranges (the levels of volume) in music may cover a spectrum from silence to deafening loudness. Such dynamic contrast is an important aspect of music with varying dynamic ranges found in different styles and types of music.
Describing differences in timbre is challenging because the available English language vocabulary is highly subjective. Music borrows words from other disciplines to describe the different qualities of sound. Despite the challenges inherent in describing timbre, doing so is important in distinguishing between music traditions, styles, instruments, and performers. Technically, timbre is a product of relationships between the partials that constitute musical tones.
One good way to start to identify the different timbres we hear in sound is to think of them as different colors. Think of a color that comes to mind when hearing the Biwa from Japan, the color you would give to the timbre of the Balafon from West Africa, the color of the Trumpet played by Miles Davis with his Harmon mute inserted without the stem inside of it, or the color that comes to mind when you hear the Aboriginal Australian instrument called the didjeridu. Each will have its own unique hue.
It is also good to think in terms of light or dark shades which help describe these tone quality (timbre) descriptions. The brightness of a flute being played up in a high range as compared to that same flute playing the lower to lowest pitches (on a regular concert flute down to a “C” or with the B foot extension, a low “B”). When these lower notes are sounding that same flute has a much darker and earthy quality of sound or timbre.
Instruments are divided into five classifications by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification system: chordophones, aerophones, membranophones, idiophones and electronophones. Each culture, however, has its own specific system of classifying instruments used in within the musics of that culture.

Dynamics
The dynamics in music refers to the how loud or soft different tones in music are. Gradations along the continuum of dynamics are generally referred to as very soft, soft, medium, loud, very loud or by a set of Italian musicals (such as piano, mezzo piano, etc) If the dynamic level gradually changes from softer to louder, the volume is said to crescendo. If the dynamic level gradually changes from louder to softer, the volume is said to decrescendo.
Chapter 5 Music Journal – Part 1: Information
1. Define the following terms:
Key Terms Definitions or Explanations or comments
Crescendo

Decrescendo

Acoustic (as in acoustic instrument)

Dynamic range

Ensembles

Harmonics

Didjeridu

Music instrument

Instrumentation

Hornbostel-Sachs classification system

Aerophones

Chordophones

Membranophones

Idiophones

Electronophones

Drumset

Digital sampling

Multitrack recording

Overdubbing

Chapter 5 Journal – Part 2: Online Music Illustrations and the Annenberg Video
Listen to all of the Online Musical Illustrations for Chapter 5. These 9 Musical Illustrations (Numbers 12-20) will help you to better understand many of the terms above and enhance your critical listening skills. Read the chapter and listen to the Illustrations as they come up in the chapter. Repeated listening is a must as you begin to notice what to listen for in each Illustration.
Textbook Musical Illustrations
(Links to an external site.)
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526649/student_view0/musical_illustrations.html
(Links to an external site.)
2. With the exception of Number 16 which you will chart below in question 3, write down anything you notice in Musical Illustrations 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, and 20). You do not have to respond to all, rather just those that were interesting or new or different for you. Identify each of your responses by writing the corresponding Musical Illustration Number and its name – such as Musical Illustration Number 12 – Tone With Crescendo and Decrescendo followed by your comments and observations.

Now turn your focus to just the Chapter 5 Musical Illustration Number 16 – Distinctive timbres of several world music Instruments
3. Complete the Chart Below:
Time Instrument Describe the Timbre Possible Instrument Classification (Idiophone, Chordophone, Aerophone, Membranophone, Electrophone)
0:00-0:06 Indonesian Anklang

0:07-0:18 Mexican guitarron

0:19-0:26 Ugandan mandinda
(xylophone)

0:27-0:37 Native American powwow drum

0:38-0:48 Javanese Gong

0:49-0:53 Japanese sho (mouth organ)

0:54-0:59 West African axatse (rattle)

1:00-1:07 Appalachian dulcimer

1:08-1:19 Balinese suling (bamboo flute)

1:20-1:24 Andean siku
(panpipes)

For question #4 below, view and respond to this excellent video from Annenberg Media – the topic (most appropriate for Chapter 5) is (6. Timbre: The Color of Music).
7. Timbre: The Color of Music
(Links to an external site.)
http://www.learner.org/resources/series105.html?pop=yes&pid=1243#
The tone color of music — or “timbre,” as we call it in the Western tradition — is influenced by both technical and aesthetic factors. This program examines the creation and effects of timbre in jazz and Indian, West African, Irish, Bosnian, Indonesian gamelan, and Japanese musics.
4. Comment on any aspects of the Annenberg Video, Timbre: The Color of Music. What was new to you? What did you learn or discover in this video?

Chapter 5 Music Journal – Part 3: Reflections
What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Additional information and a recommendation:
Playing the Didjeridu
The didjeridu is known by many names in Australia including didgeridoo, didjeridu, digeridoo, yidaki, and a wide number of tribal names. In this lesson, the instrument name will be the one used by the author, instrument maker, or performer cited. The following table shows some of the names used for this instrument among Aboriginal peoples in Australia:

Aboriginal Tribe Australian Region Didgeridoo Name
Anindilyakwa Groote Eylandt ngarrriralkpwina
Arrernte Alice Springs ilpirra
Djinang Arnhem Land yirtakki
Gagudju Kakadu garnbak
Gupapuygu Arnhem Land yiraka
Iwaidja Cobourg Peninsula wuyimba
Jawoyn Katherine artawirr
Lardil Mornington Island djibolu
Mayali Alligator River martba
Ngarluma Roebourne kurmur
Nyul Nyul Kimberley ngaribi
Pintupi Central Australia paampu
Warray Adelaide River bambu

Traditionally, the didjeridu is constructed from a long branch that has been hollowed out by termites. The bark is removed, the outside of the branch smoothed by a blade or sanding, and the inside cleaned to remove debris. Finally, designs are painted in ochre (traditional designs) or various modern paints. The narrower end is coated with beeswax to form a comfortable mouthpiece. The pitches are limited to the fundamental and very few partials based on the length of the instrument. Some contemporary makers, however, have designed chromatic didgeridoos from ballistic plastics through inserting a smaller tube to serve as a slide much like the orchestral trombone. Such chromatic instruments are often used by studio players who need a range of pitches to accompany different songs without the need for carrying many didgeridoos into the studio.
The player blows into the didjeridu using a loose buzzing of the lips. Placement on the lips is determined by individual preference or ease of tone production, but numerous players place the instrument toward one side of the mouth. Different effects are created by voicing sounds in the throat and by manipulating the relationship between the fundamental and its harmonics in a variety of ways.
A beginning player may create basic effects through using the tongue to change the size of the air chamber within the mouth, varying intensity or breath or simply voicing the vowel sounds through the instrument much as would a ventriloquist. Lip tension may make some changes in the timbre and pitch.

Throat Singing (Harmonic Overtone Singing—“Multiphonic”) from Mongolia and Tuva
• Each pitch produced by a voice or an instrument does not consist of a single sound.
• What is actually produced is a fundamental tone—the tone our ear perceives as the basic pitch of the sound, and a series of harmonics (also called overtones).
• Khoomii means “throat singing”
• The name derives from an Inner Asian word for “throat.”
• By manipulating the mouth cavity and the position of the tongue, the singer causes one additional partial (harmonic or overtone) to be heard above the fundamental.
• Some singers can sound a third partial (Harmonic or overtone) at the same time.
• Kargyraa (car-gee-RAH”) is a type of khoomii that has a fundamental sung in a low register with a husky vocal quality (timbre).
• Sometimes the Kargyraa style can have a text (words) that the singer sings.
• The word Kargyraa is an onomatopoeic word for wheezing or speaking in a hoarse or husky voice.
• Another common style of throat singing is Sygyt (“SUH-gut”)—this has a higher pitched fundamental than Kargyraa.
• Sygyt produces clear harmonics that sound like whistling
Students are encouraged to borrow, rent, or purchase the film Genghis Blues featuring the late Paul Pena and the Tuvan great Kongar-ol Ondar. This film is amazing on many levels—human, cultural, and musical—both indigenous and hybrid. Further, watching this film could stimulate topic ideas for your Final Assignment (Research Paper).
http://www.genghisblues.com/
(Links to an external site.)