Chapter 5 Questions
1 How would you classically condition an adventuresome 2-year-old to be more fearful of running across a busy street near her house? Be sure to identify the UCS, CS, UCR, and CR in your answer.
2 If George is spanked immediately after his baby sister cries, he is likely to become fearful every time she cries. If Ken is spanked immediately before his baby sister cries, he is not likely to become fearful when she cries. What do the different reactions of George and Ken suggest about the role of cognitive processes in associative learning?
3 For Vina, cigarettes reduce feelings of tension and anxiety. Because of her heavy smoking, however, she has a bad morning cough and breathing difficulties. How can the principles of operant conditioning help to explain the development and continuation of Vina’s self-defeating smoking habit? Explain the extent to which the reinforcement for Vina’s habit is positive or negative, primary or conditioned, immediate or delayed, partial or continuous.
4 Although Mr. Wright often tells his children about the importance of donating time and money to charitable causes, he rarely does so himself. He believes that this hypocrisy will not rub off on his children, however, as long as he has plausible excuses for his lack of charity. Use your understanding of learning processes to explain how Mr. Wright’s children are likely to be affected by their father’s behavior. What advice would you give to Mr. Wright?
5 Mr. Byrne can’t understand why scolding his seventhgrade students for disruptive classroom behaviors makes them more unruly. Explain Mr. Byrne’s predicament in terms of operant conditioning principles. Show how he could use operant conditioning techniques to (a) reduce disruptive behaviors and (b) increase cooperative behaviors.
Chapter 6 Questions
6 Define memory; explain the three processes of memory, encoding, storage, and retrieval; and describe the abilities of a mnemonist and the drawbacks to having a “perfect” memory.
7 Describe and give examples of how memories are retrieved through recognition; identify common tests of recognition; and explain how the kind of distractors used in the tests of recognition affects retrieval accuracy.
8 Discuss the recovered memory/false memory debate; and explain why extreme caution is warranted when “recovered” memories are the only basis for believing that traumatic events, such as childhood sexual abuse, happened in the past.
9 Describe and give examples of how memory can be improved through the following encoding strategies: a. elaborative processing, b. better selection of information; c. organization, d. whole learning, e. the progressive-part method, f. encoding memory cues, g. overlearning, and h. spaced practice.
10 Discuss the four basic principles of using mnemonics systems and how mental images and unusual associations are used to link new information with familiar memories already stored in LTM