CLASSROOM DISCOURSE AND PEDAGOGY
1 Assignment 2
2 Turn-taking 2: Rules of Turn-taking in Classrooms
3 Turn-taking: Implications for language learning
1 Assignment 2: Analytic Essay
Students will be given a selection of long transcriptions and recordings. You will have a choice of either a second language classroom, or of a restaurant conversation involving second and first language speakers. You will be given guidance in choosing a topic from the course (turn-taking, sequence, turn construction, repair), and you will then be asked to make a collection of the chosen phenomenon, sort the collected examples, and write an analytic essay of the phenomenon. The essay should begin with an introduction stating what data is being used, and the topic of the essay; there should be a short summary of the relevant literature; then short extracts should be introduced (similar in length in most cases to those in the class handouts or Assignment 1); the extracts should be in the body of the essay, and should be analysed in a similar way to the extracts in Assignment 1: identifying where the feature under examination occurs in the extract, describing it, and considering how this does (or does not) orient to learning. The extracts should be presented in a logical and coherent order, such as from simple to complex, or core to peripheral; there should be a short discussion of the significance of the findings for language teaching and learning; finally a conclusion should bring together the findings and implications.
Length: 2,500 words
Due: Week 13:26 October 2012
Choice of appropriate topic. (5%)
Summary of appropriate literature (25%)
Collection of good examples of the data, appropriately sorted and sequenced. (25%)
Good analysis and discussion of the data (40%)
Clear and concise expression. (2%)
Adherence to the conventions of academic writing. (2%)
Adherence to the set word limit (10% tolerance allowed). (1%)
Data for Assignment 2
Transcripts and sound files for this assignment can be found at [email protected], in the Assessment folder.
I have provided you with more data than you will need, so you should be selective about what you use. You might want to choose a class/conversation at random, or you might want to choose between classroom and natural conversation, or you might want to choose by proficiency level, or perhaps make comparisons of some phenomenon across levels. However, whatever you choose, it is important that you don’t allow yourself to be overwhelmed by the quantity of data. Don’t listen to all the data!
The data you’ll find are as follows:
1 Sydney restaurant data
This is a recording of a restaurant conversation involving three Anglo-Australians
(Colin, Annabel and Denise) and two non-English background speakers, Edina (German first language) and Roberta (Brazilian Portuguese first language).
Edina and Roberta are ADVANCED LEVEL SPEAKERS
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
2 Beginners’ TESOL class with Korean learners
A-TR3 – Class 3 Recorded in a community ESL class in Sydney, Australia-
Australian teacher (Harry) /3 students (1 male and 2 females)/ Conversation class
AUDIO AND VIDEO AVAILABLE
3 Intermediates’ TESOL classes with Korean learners
K-TR8 – Class 1 Oxford English private school in Korea.– 24/04/02,
American teacher (Ken) / 2 students (2 females)/ Conversation class –
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
K-TR10 – Class 1 Oxford English private school in Korea.– 01/05/02,
American teacher (Ken) / 2 students (2 females)/ Conversation class
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
K-TR12 – Class 2 H.F.L. Univ.– 13/05/02, 6:30 – 7:50 p.m.
Canadian teacher (Barry) / 8 students (7 males & 1 female)/ Conversation class,
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
K-TR14 – Class 2 H.F.L. Univ.– 20/05/02, 6:30 – 7:50 p.m.
Canadian teacher (Berry) / 8 students (7 males & 1 female)/ Conversation class
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
2 Turn-taking in Conversation and in the Language Classroom
A set of rules for turn-taking:
The Sacks et al model of turn-taking: turn allocation rules (or TACs: turn allocation components)
TRP = Transition relevance place, C = current speaker, and N = next speaker.
Rule 1 – applies initially at the first TRP of any turn
(a) If C selects N in current turn, then C must stop speaking, and N must speak next, transition occurring at the first TRP after N-selection
(b) If C does not select N, then any (other) party may self-select, first speaker gaining rights to the next turn
(c) If C has not selected N, and no other party self-selects under option (b), then C may (but need not) continue (i.e. claim rights to a further turn-constructional unit).
Rule 2 – applies to all subsequent TRPs
When rule 1(c) has been applied by C, then at the next TRP Rules 1 (a)-(c) apply, and recursively at the next TRP, until speaker change is effected.
To what extent are these rules culturally or institutionally specific?
(1) Stew Dinner
1 DAD: How’s everybody at school,=( seen) no: catastrophies, (0.2)
2 everybody is in good health, no: (0.4) no members of the faculty
3 who’ve die:d,
4 CIN: Corban uhm (0.8) he’s (fainted,ik) on was on crutches.
5 MOM: Corban did?
6 CIN: Mm hm.
7 MOM: Oh. he’s such a cute little boy.
9 MOM: No nobody died since the last weekend where we had-
10 two faculty member family deaths in one weekend.
Some ‘gross’ characteristics of conversation (from Sacks et al, 1974)
(1) Speaker change recurs, or at least occurs
(2) Overwhelmingly, one party talks at a time
(3) Occurrences of more than one speaker at a time are common, but brief
(4) Lack of gaps or overlaps are common
(5) Turn order varies
(6) Turn size varies
(7) Conversation length is not specified beforehand
(8) Topic is not specified beforehand
(9) Turn distribution is not specified beforehand
(10) Number of participants varies
(11) Talk can be continuous or discontinuous
(12) Turn-allocation is by speaker-selection or self-selection
(13) Turns can be one word or sentence length
(14) Repair mechanisms exist for errors and violations of turn-taking rules
These are rules for ordinary everyday conversation
These are rules in the sense that we orient to them, but don’t always follow them. We can break the rules of turn-taking for conversation, and still be in a conversation.
Formal institutional talk has different – and often simplified – rules (but perhaps not for classrooms!).
The rules for such institutional interactions are adaptations of the basic rules for conversation, usually with particular rights and positions of speaking allocated to particular roles in the institutional event.
Overlap occurs: the overlap resolution device
Silence occurs: usually for identifiable reasons
Some examples from classrooms: What’s going on with turn-taking here?
1 T-Barry: RI:GHT. (0.2) goo:d. (.) Ho:pee:?
3 S4-Hopi: Whad ‘as thuh noi::se. (0.3) it sounds
4 li:ke;= ?sunder:.
6 T-Barry: Mm:.= ri:ght. grea:t. Er:in.
7 S5-Erin: •hhh I feel dizzy; all of duh- (.) all of a
8 sudden.<?I feel as if:;= I’m going to fai:nt.
10 T-Barry: ?O:?ka:y.
1 T-Ken: [alrigh-; (0.2) •hhh now:; (.) c’n you tell
2 me what (0.3) phil:: (0.2) an:thropy *mean:s*.=
3 S1-Ann: °phil°a:nthropy:,
5 T-Ken: D’ju know?
7 S1-Ann: •hh hheowhh
8 S2-Bet: an:?thropy ?mea:ns,= e::h; (.) ?peo:-?ple:.=
9 T-Ken: People. (.) [ye:s.
10 S2-Bet: [people?
12 T-Ken: People:¿ (.) ?an:thro: ?means peo:ple:?
13 S2-Bet: u:hm¿
15 T-Ken: a:nd (4.8) phi:l: means wha:t-h;
17 S2-Bet: °l:o:ve,°
18 T-Ken: ?lo:ve:;
20 S1-Ann: °M:[m¿°
21 T-Ken: [So-;= phila:nthro?py:,= ?means lo:ve:,= of
(4) A-TR3:86:Dish washing
1 T: What’s she do:ing?
2 S1: °°hehh huh HHEH huh-huh-huh°° -ö::hh Dish
3 wash:: hih heh he[h
4 T: [She’s dish washing. She’s
6 S1: Yeah.=
7 T: She’s w:ashing up.
8 S2: °Uhn.°
10 T: •hhh Oka:y¿
11 S1: [ Dish:] wa]tshing.
12 T: [(She’s] wa-)]
14 T: Very ?good.
16 T: Where are you?
McHoul’s (1979) rules of turn-taking for the classroom:
(I) For any teacher’s turn, at the initial transition-relevance place of an initial turn-constructional unit:
(A) If the teacher’s turn-so-far is so constructed as to involve the use of a ‘current speaker selects next’ technique, then the right and obligation to speak is given to a single student; no others have such a right or obligation and transfer occurs at that transition relevance place.
(B) If the teacher’s turn-so-far is so constructed as not to involve the use of a ‘current speaker selects next’ technique, then current speaker (the teacher) must continue.
(II) If I(A) is effected, for any student-so-selected’s turn, at the initial transition-relevance place of an initial turn-constructional unit:
(A) If the student’s-so-selected’s turn-so-far is so constructed as to involve the use of a ‘current speaker selects next’ technique, then the right and obligation to speak is given to the teacher; no others have such a right or obligation and transfer occurs at that transition relevance place.
(B) If the student-so-selected’s turn-so-far is so constructed as not to involve the use of a ‘current speaker selects next’ technique, then the self-selection for next speaker may, but need not, be instituted with the teacher as first starter and transfer occurs at that transition relevance place.
(C) If the student-so-selected’s turn-so-far is so constructed as not to involve the use of a ‘current speaker selects next’ technique, then current speaker (the student), may, but need not, continue unless the teacher self-selects.
(III) For any teacher’s turn, if, at the initial transition-relevance place of an initial turn-construction unit either (1)A has not operated or I(B) has operated and the teacher has continued, the rule-set I(A)-I(B) re-applied at the next transition-relevance place until transfer to a student is effected.
(IV) For any student’s turn, if, at the initial transition-relevance place of in initial turn-construction unit neither II(A) nor II(B) has operated, and, following the provision of II(C), current speaker (the student) has continued, then the rule set II(A)-II(C) re-applied at the next transition-relevance place until transfer to the teacher is effected.
This rule-set applies to traditional, teacher-fronted, and teacher-controlled classes.
Is this what is happening in extracts (4) to (6) above?
McHoul also claims that:
1) The potential for gap and pause is maximized
2) The potential for overlap is minimized, in that:
(2a) the possibility of the teacher (or a student) ‘opening up’ the talk to a self-selection student first starter is not accounted for
(2b) the possibility of a student using a ‘current speaker selects next’ technique to select another student is not accounted for
3) The permutability of turn-taking is minimized.
In extracts (4) to (6) above, do you find that these observations hold?
In more recent work, Seedhouse (2004 – see reading for week 5) makes some other observations which help account for less tradition classrooms (including task-based learning (TBL) and other communicative classrooms).
(1) In form-focussed lessons (or phases), ‘precise strings of linguistics forms and precise patterns of interaction’ will occur, and it is thus ‘essential for the teacher to have tight control of the turn-taking system’ (p. 102). This is where we find the turn-taking rules as explicated by McHoul being enacted.
(2) Note that this kind of turn-taking is closely aligned to the IRF structure of traditional classroom interaction
(3) In meaning-and-fluency focussed lessons, ‘the focus is on the expression of personal meaning rather than on linguistic forms’, and ‘the organization of the interaction will necessarily become less narrow and rigid’ (p 111). This often involves pair or group work, and learners manage turn-taking without the teacher. Clearly the McHoul rules will not apply here. When the teacher enters such activities, s/he may take control again to varying degrees.
(4) In TBL classes where pair or group work are occurring, Seedhouse suggests the following
(I) there is a reflexive relationship between the type of task and the turn-taking system
(II) there is a tendency to minimization and indexicality
(III) much modified interaction occurs (clarification requests, confirmation checks, comprehension checks)
What observations can you make about the following two extracts, based on what Seedhouse claims.
1 T: [So you ] intruh- Ri:gh’.
3 T: H:allo; (0.2) ?go on, (.) Sul you introduce yourself.
5 S3: A:::h; my name is H:i:lda:?
7 T: Ye:s, (0.3) good-,
9 S3: I: l:ive ¢aw::h¢ (0.2) °e::wh° Dun:?dess: ?Pah:k-u ?¢Loa:d-u¢.
11 T: Yuh live in Pa:rk Road Dun:das:.= Good-.
13 S3: -eh[hhh
14 T: [?Good-; you: introduce yuhself. •hhh You introduce
15 yuhself Ang’?l[a¿
16 S2: [O:::h.
18 S2: •hhh I:’m:- (1.2) Angela::¿ (0.3) [a:n:d (1.3) °mm:.° (0.5)=
19 T: [°Mm°
20 S2: =-eh hhI: live in Carlingfo:rd¿
22 T: [°mm ?hm,°
23 S2: [•hh a:h:, (2.3) I am ?fordy o:ne.
25 T: alrigh’¿ (0.2) >^good-; (.) [thank you.<
26 S2: [°Yeah.°
27 T: hh o:kay¿ (.) very good-.
1 T-Barry: O?kay;<I ?wanna ah- I would like tuh ask you;= three:
4 T-Barry: Can you clo:se your boo:k?
6 T-Barry: Oka:y¿ cl:ose your ?boo:k, (0.2) uh:m; ?which country: do
7 you like t’ tra:vel to:.
9 T-Barry: Which country do you like to travel to Jo:e?
11 S6-Ste?: °Joe-°
12 S1-Joe: •hhh A:::°hhh° ?I: wanna travel: to: uhh (0.2)
15 T-Barry: O:h ?why:.
17 S1-Joe: Why?
19 S1-Joe: •fnhhh A::h;= I’m int’rested in: (0.3) Buddhism. °nh-nh-nh°
21 T-Barry: O:?ka:y, (0.2) d’yuh mean thuh his:t’ry:_= or thuh
22 mo:der:n, (.) mo:dern Boo:ddhism?
24 S1-Joe: °a::h ?(yuh-)_°
26 S1-Joe: (°jus’ modern.°)
28 T-Barry: an:d modern.
29 S1-Joe: a:: lod of uh-; (1.0) herritage is (.) °mm:° (.) °a:h;°
30 (0.3) herrit- herritage is ?the:re.
32 T-Barry: O:h;=?okay:.
34 T-Barry: Okay;<w’ll anybody el:se;=wanntuh go tuh India with Jo:e?
1 T-Barry: Okay;<w’ll anybody el:se;=wanntuh go tuh
2 India with: Jo:e?
3 ?: •nhhh
5 ?: °KHHuh°
7 T-Barry: No:body?
9 T-Barry: O:kay;<well [sorry Joe[:.
10 S7-Dean: [I w’d rike °tuhh°.
11 SS: [huh huh huh (.) huh huh
12 T-Barry: ?Ohkay;<w’ll that’s ?great;<?why do you
13 wanna go duh India.=
14 S7-Dean: =Dee India:~:’s cultyuh is- (.) ?very mystairyus:. (0.2)
15 °an: duh:° (0.9) deir- dei:’re: (.) d-depth of min:e (0.8)
16 °is: uh° (1.0) very im:press:ive to me:;
18 S7-Dean: s:o; (0.4) I woul[d like to- ]
19 T-Barry: [de:pth ?ev.]
20 T-Barry: >whadduyuh mea-< (.) what- do you mea:n;= depth of
22 S7-Dean: s::: (.) ?so:?. (.) this u:h; (0.5) ?I: mea:n the:r?
23 (1.0) another worr:ld ?*of: the:* °eh::hn° (1.1) thei:r-
24 (0.6) °s:o:.°? (0.2) ^°I can’ exprain u::h°; (.) tsk
25 that’s like- (0.9) °u::h° (.) ?mi:nd wo:rrl’.
27 S7-Dean: yuh know-?
29 T-Barry: min:[d ?wor:ld.]
30 S7-Dean: [i- ye::h. ]= id is: u:h-; (0.4) diff’ren’ (0.2) u-
33 T-Barry: oh a diff’ren- li:fe sty::le?
35 T-Barry: like a- tradi[tional life sty]:le?=
36 S7-Dean: [Actu’lly na:ht.]
37 T-Barry: =or so[:mething:¿ ]
38 S7-Dean: [Actu’lly no]t. (.) dis: (0.2) I mea:n: (2.2)
39 dei:r: (2.1) mi:nd mee:th:.
41 S7-Dean: >so’thing [like< ?da:ht.]
42 T-Barry: [°thei:r° ?sta:]te ev mi:nd. (0.3) s:piri?tu:l;
44 T-Barry: Yeah;<their s[piritual] mi:nd?
45 S7-Dean: [°?Yeah.°]
47 T-Barry: ?O?ka:y¿
3 Turn-taking: Implications for Language Learning
Some questions to consider:
1 Do learners need to learn how to turn-take in a second language
Consider: The rules of turn-taking
The ‘gross observations’ about turn-taking
2 Classroom turn-taking: Is it helpful for a teacher to understand
conversational and classroom turn-taking to help facilitate language
Consider: Tolerance for silence in the classroom
Student taking FPP vs SPP turns (what is the difference for
Turn-taking in ‘formal’ form-focused pedagogical sequences vs. turn-taking in freer, fluency-focused tasks
3 Turn-taking in conversational sequences vs. turn-taking in extended turns
(e.g. stories, recounts, descriptions): What are the differences?
Do you have any other observations about turn-taking and language learning?