Compare and Contrast two organisations
This assignment requires you to compare and contrast two organisations, based on the case studies attached below. Please make sure you used several online soursces for referencing.
Example of Case Study Comparison
Note this is a comparison of two cases, but different cases from those you are to compare in the portfolio. This example is not perfect but gives some idea of what we expect of you.
Assignment 1: Compare and Contrast two organisations
This task will be examining the differences and similarities in the organisational culture, structural design, the motivation and job design in Lola Print Ltd (LPL) and in Docklands Solution Ltd(DSL). LPL is a family business that is engaged in the production of dying and printing textiles. It has been established for several years with quite a considerable number of employees while DSL is a bigger organisation that specialises in computer software. It has 4 branches around Europe and in Africa.
Organisational culture is defined as what is seen to be important by an organisation. It could be how employees should behave, interact and what the organisation aim and objectives are (Plunkett and Attner,1994). Every organisation has specific beliefs, values and norms which create a unique culture that reflect on the management style, vision and aims. It provides means through which each employee could adapt to the organisation’s core code of conduct. A newly employed staff would have some sort of induction for some few days to help understand the role of their job and the culture of the organisation. Martin and Fellenz (2010) mentioned Charles Handy’s theory of organisational culture which is described in four types. The power culture allows very little or no delegation at all as decision making revolves around the focal authority which are usually the owners. The role culture is the second and it is firmly based on the existences of a sort of management structure which could be procedures or rules. It is mainly dominated by hierarchy and bureaucracy. The task culture emphasis is on results and getting the work done. The final type is the person culture which is not very common, this based upon individual(s) within organisations to have their own cultural values which is accepted and respected by the organisation. These individuals could be specialist, or consultants. LPL tends to have a mixture of the power culture and the role culture. LPL culture follows the power culture where the organisation is controlled by the son of the founder with the help of his managers. Its employees are assigned roles and give little opportunity at communicating or sharing of ideas among the different department or top management. LPL has a hierarchy structure with the authority centralized; it runs from top level to bottom. The top management are responsible for literally all decision making and conflict resolution.
However, DSL operates in a task culture where emphasis is focused on getting jobs done rather the positions of employees. Like LPL, DSL functions by being innovative in the operation of business but unlike LPL,DPL believes innovation is not only about technology but its employees as well. It encourages teamwork, employees are paired together from the other branches to work together on particular task compared to LPL where individual work is encouraged. Unlike LPL, DSL leadership culture is flat and employees are treated as equals to create a friendly environment where all employees socialise with themselves to create a bond and a sense of identity. LPL is a production company that relies on its employees speed and efficiency but DSL relies on its employee’s innovation and creativity. Both organisation have a culture where all their employee are loyal to the firm, they have worked in the firm since it was established.
Organisational design and structure is the result of a organisation’s strategic planning which depict into its design. The objective of this design is to create a structure which fits around an organisation’s aim, resources and its environment. Hannagan (2002). Structure in organisations defines the relationship between the organisation and its employee; it specifies the labour division, hierarchy and the structure of authority. There are mainly 2 types of structure. The functional structure involves a formal structure where focus is on role of employees and the separation of work into departments. This is usually according to where the head of the department specialises in, each department having separate chain of command. The functional structure is bureaucratic. The Matrix structure approach involves an informal structure where emphasis is based on the completion of projects through individuals and team work. Expertise are put together in order to achieve the organisation aim rather than the emphasis power or role .LPL operates in a functional structure with bureaucracy which constitute of division of responsibility and task ,hierarchical organisation of role, authority and rules. LPL clearly defines the role of its employees where there a pyramid from the top management to the production employees at the bottom. Aside from the owner of the company, all other employees are subordinated to another and answerable to someone. The chain of command and employees are encouraged only to do specific task mostly as individuals and are constraint to those task therefore they cannot integrate within the organisation to learn other things. While DSL functions in the Matrix structure which is flat and employees work in teams that pooled into one to achieve a goal expertly regardless of what position or authority they hold within the organisation. It is also a work friendly organisation where employees are allowed to be innovative and are allowed to integrate among each to meet their goal objective. It is very flexible and employees can choose to work from home, communicate through other means than visually. It also encourages team bonding among the employees from the founder to the newest staff. There is no formal structure in DSL, it doesn’t define the role of its employees but rather work in accordance to specialities. Both organisations is designed to put their customers satisfaction first.
Motivation and job design can be defined as psychological force that pushes employees to perform. Pettinger (2002).It can determine behaviour of employees and their level of devotion to work. Motivation is key in an organisation as it explains why employees act the way they do. Meyer et al (2007) described motivation in two types. Intrinsic motivation is a source of motivation that comes from within. Extrinsic motivation is performed to get some sort of social reward. Cole and Kelly (2011) describes the Herzberg’s theory, it suggested that motivation at work job decreases or increases in relation to hygiene factor or motivators. Motivators are factors that feed the motivation of employees such as recognition, growth, the work itself and achievement. Hygiene factors are factors that leads to dissatisfaction such as salary, working condition, recognition and job security and relationship with subordinate. LPL job design and motivation will depict poor especially for the unskilled employees. Motivators such as recognition and achievement are lacking. The management favours males over female therefore not recognising the female workers regardless of the experience or ability. and it rarely promote its employees. LPL employees grumble about their wages which implies that it is low. This could also not motivate employees. The rigidness of hierarchic and bureaucratic structure of the organisation could make employees lack motivation. Unlike the DSL, employees do not even hold a desk and can work from home. it is very flexibility and the environment is very lively and enjoyable. Management acknowledges accomplishments, ability and successes of employees regardless of gender of employees. Social activities are promoted to allow team bonding and identification.
Both organisation provide a friendly atmosphere for their worker and put their employment interest at heart. LPL wants to develop the organisation through using more technology but it also want to be able to secure its employees jobs, this will give LPL a sense of job security Like LPL, DSL wants its employees to be well rounded and continue to grow.
In conclusion, the culture of organisations are formed unconsciously by founders or leaders of such organisation. This will then determines the design, structure, job roles and motivation of such organisation. The cultures of organisations could differs in so many way but their aims are always the same. Productivity, innovation and profit are the main objectives of organisations. LPL and MSL will put these factors into consideration throughout all of its decision making. Different culture could be matched to work together in order to create a work and profit friendly environment.
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Hannagan, T. (2002). Management concept and practices. 3rd ed. Essex, England: Pearson education limited. p34-35
Martin, J. and Fellenz, M. (2010). Organisation Behaviour & Management. 4th ed. Hampshire, united kingdom: Cengage learning. p134-139.
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