Describe the three approaches of leading change in organisations (Planned, OD and Emergent). How do the three approaches compare and what are the implications for implementing change in organisations.

Describe the three approaches of leading change in organisations (Planned, OD and Emergent). How do the three approaches compare and what are the implications for implementing change in organisations.

Order Description

Describe the three approaches of leading change in organisations (Planned, OD and Emergent). How do the three approaches compare and what are the implications for implementing change in organisations.

Leadership and Change. Summative Assessment:  Essay: 2000 words; 70% counting towards overall module mark

Submit a 2000 word essay on the following topic:
Describe the three approaches of leading change in organisations (Planned, OD and Emergent). How do the three approaches compare and what are the implications for implementing change in organisations.

Your assignments will be marked on the following criteria:
Marks allocated to criteria:    Criteria
20%    Content
Does the assignment indicate a comprehensive understanding of the topic area?
Is the understanding of the topic and exposition of relevant issues well informed? Does the assignment demonstrate an awareness of nuances and complexities of the relevant issues?
30%    Synthesis and use of literature
Does the assignment bring together the literature in a significant manner that addresses an assignment question? Is relevant theory critically applied to practical organisational situations? Is the breadth and depth of academic sources used extended and focused? Is the Harvard System adequately used to reference sources within the text and in the reference list?
30%    Soundness of Argument Construction
Are relevant issues analysed on the basis of theoretical and practical evidence rather than on unsupported assumptions? Are arguments clearly structured and logically developed?
10%    Critical analysis
Is there evidence of critical analysis and evaluation of the relevant issues in relation to the literature?  Is there evidence of independent thought? Does the assignment demonstrate an effective use of examples from day to day activities and personal experiences to illustrate and support the overall argument?
10%    Mechanical Soundness and Structure
Is the assignment clearly written, spell checked and grammatically sound and referenced appropriately? Is the assignment well organised and logically constructed to achieve synthesis while being mindful of the needs of the reader? Are different sections linked and integrated within the overall assignment?
LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE/ INSTRUCTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

Sample Essay Structure:
1.    Introduction
2.    Orientation: e.g why are you writing about the 3 layers of Change; how did our thinking of leadership and change develop
–    3 Approaches: for each approach first write a short description (1-3 sentences); and the rest should be Evaluation: i.e: write pro’s and con’s for each part; you can include some critique of the theories…etc
–    Planned Change
–    OD
–    Emergent Change
3.    Comparison and Implementation (approx. 800 words); how do 3 approaches compare and what are the implications for implementing change in organization. (Compare it by looking how it will work in organization; whether it can be combine or not; are there certain steps we need to follow; when do we use each approach)
4.    Conclusion: How does all of the above work in practice

Additional Suggestions: Theories that you can use! But you must include your independent research as well !
1) Planned Change (techniques for successful change management)
– Three step Model (Lewin); The role of the leader at each stage
– Weick and Quinn’s development of the three stages
– Force Field Analysis (Lewin)
– Leaders in Planned Change (Kanter et al. 1992; Kotter 1996)
2) Organizational Development
– Open System Theory
– Organizational Development to Change Management: Worren, K.Ruddle & K. Moore)
– Intervention Strategies
–  Organizational Development & Transformation ( Porras and Silvers: 1991)
3) Emergent Change:
– Emergent Change (Weick 2000)* key reference!
– Social construction approach
– Chaos and Complexity theory
– Processual Approach;     – Systemic Approach
– Language Shifts: Kegan & Lahey

Please Note:
1) The Essay should be purely theoretical. Include At least 12 Academic Articles
2) Include only the most important theories for each part! ( E.g Organizational Development: is a part of planned change, but it deals with a human factor; open system theory and etc.) ; Emergent Change- is more about the language (Weick 2000 Key Reference); Power Politics important for emergent change; where the power is placed in organizations; Management in emergent change: requires intuition and better understanding)
3) Analyze each part separately: e.g separate analysis of OD.
– Within the theories of change you can mention Leadership

Material from the Lectures: Can be used in the coursework
1) Planned change Summary:
•    Moving an organisation from one stable state to another
•    Top-down
•    Finite objectives
•    Must be self-sustaining
•    Is a collaborative process
•    Is a cyclical process:
Diagnosis
Action
Evaluation
Further action
Further evaluation.
Initiatives; Sometimes intervention
Planned Change Critisism:
•    Assumes environmental stability
•    Ignores power and politics
•    Too reliant on managers
•    Not applicable to situations that need rapid, directive transformational change
•    It is a ‘one best way’ approach
•    Limited applicability.

2) OD Overview:
– Group dynamics
– Action research
– The standard-bearer for Planned change
– Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change
– Weisbord’s Six Box Model
–  Main approaches to OD (Hurley et al)
•    Empowering employees to act
•    Creating openness in communications
•    Facilitating ownership of the change process and its outcomes
•    The promotion of a culture of collaboration
•    The promotion of continuous learning.
– Greiner’s red flags
– Porras and Silvers : Organization Development and Transformation(1991)

3) Emergent Change:
•    Open-ended process
• Adjusting to changing external environment
• Usually Bottom-up
• Unpredictable
• Cannot be pre-planned
• Learning process
• No universal rules.

The Emergent Approach Summary:
Change is a continuous process
• It involves experimentation, adaptation and risk taking
• Incremental change leads to wholesale change
• Managers must foster a climate of learning and
experimentation
• Managers must create a collective vision for the
organisation
• The key organisational processes are:
– Information-gathering
– Communication
– Learning.