Discussion Question 15: Meeting Necessary Conditions COLLAPSE.
In order to prove an argument, certain supporting reasons or evidence are necessary. This is also called affirming the consequent. To check for necessary conditions, we can rephrase the argument such as:
If this doesn’t happen, then that won’t occur.
If this isn’t true, that can’t be true either.
For example, if you do not call a taxi in advance to take you to the airport, a taxi will not come to pick you up.
Consider this example: Sultan is a bachelor.
In order for this to be true, Sultan must be a man, he must be single, and he must be an adult. Otherwise it can’t be true. If Sultan is not a man, not single, or not an adult, then he can’t be a bachelor.
Squares have four sides. If it has more than four sides or fewer than four sides, it’s not a square.
Give one example of “meeting necessary conditions,” and explain your example. If you find one on the web, be sure to put the reference.
Thread: Discussion Question 16: Meeting Sufficient Conditions
Sufficient conditions are met by saying, “If this is true, then that must always be true.”
“If A is present, then that proves B.”
For example, if I say that Sultan is a bachelor, he must also be a male. The fact that he is a bachelor, means he must be male because bachelors can only be male.
The fallacy is evident here:
Ducks can swim.
Ducks are birds.
A chicken is a bird.
A chicken can swim.
Write you own example of a fallacy of not meeting sufficient conditions and explain why it is a fallacy.
Drake’s List of the Most Common Logical Fallacies. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/eng207-td/Logic%20and%20Analysis/most_common_logical_fallacies.htm
Discussion Question 17: False Analogy
False analogy is an argument in which the two things being compared are not similar enough, the comparison is misleading, or the item used for comparison is not described accurately.
If we allow cloning of human cells, we will create Frankenstein’s monster.
Cloning human cells is not the same as reanimating dead body parts that have been stitched together.
Strategic planning works for business, we should also use it in the police department.
Businesses have customers and operate for profit. The police is a public service that works to keep society safe.
Find an example online or write your own and explain it. If you find one online, be sure to put the reference.
Thread: Discussion Question 18: Deflection
Discussion Question 18: Deflection
A fallacy of deflection, simply means introducing something into the argument that is not relevant. It is also called a red herring fallacy because herring (a type of fish) are all silver. When you introduce a red one into the bunch of fish, it stands out from the others. It is also a false clue in a murder mystery. It’s goal is to get you off track. Attack the person is also a type of deflection fallacy. The character of the person is not the issue; it is not relevant to the argument.
Student: I need an “A” in your class.
Student: To have a high GPA.
Teacher: Then you need to work hard and turn in all your work on time and do a good job on all your tests and assignments.
Student: I have a 3.5 GPA in all my engineering courses. (Deflection = Not relevant).
You shouldn’t use your mobile phone on an airplane during take off and landing. It could interfere with the pilot’s radio communication with the tower and that could be dangerous. You will also disturb other passengers (=deflection, not relevant).
Write your own example and explanation of a deflection fallacy. If you find one online, be sure to put the reference.
Discussion Question 19: Unsupported Assumptions
Another logical fallacy is “assumption that is not supported by evidence.” There are several different types of this fallacy such as hidden assumptions, non-sequitors (it doesn’t follow), and jumping to conclusions.
“Holidays are a time for relaxation. This year, thousands of people will have their holidays ruined by oil spills. Therefore, they should receive compensation for having their holidays ruined.”
(Hidden assumption: If there is stress on holiday, people should be compensated.)
“The number of people in prison continues to grow. Many prisons are now overcrowded. Rehabilitation of criminals would be a much better option.”
(While it may be true that rehabilitation might be a better option, it doesn’t follow from the argument that prisons are overcrowded.)
And jumping to conclusions, for example:
“Old people are scared of being robbed.”
“They shouldn’t keep money under the bed.”
The arguer has jumped to the conclusion that the reason old people are scared of being robbed is because they keep money under their bed. There could be other reasons for their fear of being robbed.
It’s important to follow the line of reasoning in an argument so you can evaluate the strength of the argument.
Write your own example of a fallacy of assumption not supported by evidence to show that you understand the meaning. If you find one online, be sure to include the reference.
Discussion Question 20: Attacking the Person
Attacking the person or Ad Hominem is another common fallacy. Instead of looking at the problem at hand, the argument resorts to attacking the person making the argument.
A good example of this is U.S. President Barrack Obama arguing for better universal medical care for all Americans like the UAE, UK, and many other European countries have. Instead of arguing against universal healthcare, many people argued that he was black and didn’t know what he was talking about.
In the World Cup Qatar Bid 2022 scandal, many people argue that Bin Hammam must have bribed officials to win the bid because he was caught trying to bribe people to vote for him to become head of FIFA in a race against Sepp Blatter. This in itself does not prove that he bribed officials in Qatar’s Bid for the World Cup.
Write you own example of “attacking the person” or Ad Hominem fallacy. Explain your example as neccessary to show your understanding. (It can also mean “attacking the woman.”) If you find an example online, write the reference.
Discussion Question 21: Emotive Language
Discussion Question 21: Emotive Language
Emotive language or appeal to emotion is when I use people’s feeling or emotions to get them to agree with me or support my position. For example, if someone says, “The government should provide money to get those poor, homeless cats off the streets of Abu Dhabi,” this is emotive language because the words “poor” and “homeless” make you feel sad.
Politicians also use emotive language to convince people of their position. For example, they might say things like (in America), “If we let those Mexicans in, they will take jobs away from American citizens. We should build a wall between Mexico and the USA.”
Write your own example of using emotive language in an argument. Look on the web or write from your own experiences. If you use something from the web, be sure to write it in your own words and give the reference at the end.
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Discussion Question 22: Misrepresentation
A fallacy of misrepresentation is when I purposely rephrase my opponent’s argument to give it another meaning. It is also called the Straw Man fallacy.
For example, if I say, “We need to conserve our natural resources because they will run out one day,” and the opponent says, “You mean that from tomorrow we wont’ have any water left on earth! Well what about rain? It rains all the time.”
Find your own example of a fallacy of misrepresentation on the web or from your own mind. Write it in your own words and show that you clearly understand the fallacy. If you take an example from the web, be sure to write the reference.