Drugs affecting the central nervous system, Killer snails ease the pain,vPeptide leads new class of chronic pain drugs, Taxoids: New Weapons against Cancer, and Clinical Uses of Natural Chemicals
Greate three exam style questions and then provide a short answer for each question. The questions you develop are to be based on the important concepts of the course and should require a synthesis of material covered, rather than simple “regurgitation” of information.
Review the unit goals, section goals and information emphasized for each of the readings indicated. Your Q&A assignment for Unit 3 must be based on the specific readings indicated below:
Mann, J. (2000). Drugs affecting the central nervous system.
Brown, M. (2002). Killer snails ease the pain.
Garber, K. (2005). Peptide leads new class of chronic pain drugs.
Nicolaou, K.C. et al. (1996). Taxoids: New Weapons against Cancer.
Create three exam style questions based on the section and unit goals that incorporate the material from one or more of the readings indicated.
The questions you develop are to be based on the important concepts covered within these readings and associated unit pages. The questions should require a synthesis of material covered, rather than simple “regurgitation” of information. The questions should be designed as if they were 5 or 10 mark short paragraph-style exam questions; see Q&A Examples for more information on the types of questions that are expected.
Create an answer for each of your questions in the style of a short essay answer exam question.
Make sure that your answer demonstrates your knowledge and comprehension of the material by using terminology correctly, and conveying the material in your own words (i.e. do not “cut and paste” parts of the readings or course webpages to create your answers.) The answers that you provide should be written in your own words and not be a simple repetition of information provided on the Course Website or in the Course Readings.
Focus on answering only the questions you have posed (i.e. do not try to included all information on this topic area in your answer). However, your answer can/should incorporate knowledge gained from other aspects of this Unit as relevant.
1. How is the cheating phenomenon in plant- pollinator coevolution fixed and highly unstable for an orchid? Provide an example. Does this phenomenon support Ehrlich and Raven?s model of coevolution? Why or why not?
2. Is the use of pheromone adaptive? Provide support and include reference to the optimal approach. The benefits of aggregation pheromones in bark beetles are the best documented. Explain the aggregation pheromone of ?Primary? bark beetles in comparison to single beetles.
3. What is the most highly consumed natural toxin in the North American diet and what is it consumed from? In which conditions are the toxin glycoalkaloid concentrations increased? Provide an observation as an example. Make a concluding statement, comparing synthetic pesticides and natural toxins produced to contest pest stress.
1. The cheating phenomenon in plant- pollinator coevolution is fixed and highly unstable for an orchid because it may result in the extinction of the orchid due to the loss of the pollinator from a habitat. The orchid?s genetic make- up of the wasp?s olfactory system match because of the production of highly novel compounds selected. What appear to be sexual females, the wasp cannot avoid it, even though it may have changed a bit in response to the orchid?s adaptations. The wasp and the flower of the fly orchid appear similar, and the orchid also releases a sex pheromone that is similar to the sex pheromone of female wasps. These are specific volatiles that are similar between the wasp and orchid. Yes, this phenomenon supports Ehrlich and Raven?s model of coevolution because their model states that a reciprocal evolutionary interaction occurs between a plant and one its natural enemies. In this case, the orchid?s natural enemy is the wasp.
2. The use of pheromone being adaptive lacks confirmation. It is presumed that the chemicals involved in the delivery of information have no definite function in intraspecific communication. These chemicals are presumed to be by- products of respiratory and metabolic processes. This is a presumption though. Hence, instead of selecting for the minimum delivery of information, selection pressures have shaped the chemicals as signals in communication. This is a strong indication from the profusion of specialized glands and behaviors. The optimal approach suggests that aggregation pheromones are adaptive. The benefits in theory compensate the costs. Nonetheless, the integration between the biology of the insects and pheromones is present. Through joint tunneling and injection of the tree with fungi, the ?primary? bark beetle can defeat host tree defense mechanisms; in which specialized mycangia is carried by the pheromone- producing sex. They attack healthy living trees. Single beetles, in comparison, do not have a chance in successful reproduction and colonization. However, a tree (nonliving) becomes suitable for both adults and the larvae for feeding, from a successful attack, killing the tree.
3. The most highly consumed natural toxin in the North American diet is glycoalkaloids and it is consumed from potatoes. Potatoes grown in short, cool growing seasons increases glycoalkaloid concentrations. Higher glycoalkaloids were observed in warm and sunny weather conditions in the year 1991. The production of natural toxins to oppose the pest stress may be reduced because of the use of synthetic pesticides, therefore, increasing the scale of food safety. Plants that are stressed or damaged may produce higher levels of natural pesticides. Unstressed plants do not produce this high level. Preventing pest- related stresses must make the safest produce,produce; so therefore, all use of synthetic pesticides must be avoided.
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