Environs Toxicology

A case study report is required. This project will help you learn detailed information about specific chemical(s) in environmental toxicology context. Through this case study report you will achieve PLT 4110 course learning outcomes #3 and #5.

  1. Combine sourcing and synthesizing of information in the major aspects of environmental toxicology and biology;
  2. Conduct advanced analysis in the context of environmental quality, public health, sustainability, regulatory science, and public communication.
    The case study is worth one-quarter (25%) (150 pts) of your PLT 4110 course grade.
    Format:
    • Maximum total of 20 pages (excluding references)
    • Double spaced
    • 1 inch margins
    • 12 pt font
    • 12 references minimum (8 must be primary sources; 4 can be secondary – make sure they are reputable sources, sound science).
    Sources: Primary sources provide first-hand account or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. For example, peer-reviewed literature research articles, book chapters, government technical documents. Autobiography accounts are included.
    Secondary (information reported by someone else, second hand. For example, a news article reporting on study or event, a book written about the chemical/environment topic) are appropriate to your case study (up to 4 sources). This is true for Environmental Toxicology where events, ideas, studies, and opinions often benefit from hindsight and interpretation.
    Tertiary sources (compilation of Primary and Secondary Sources such as Encyclopedias) These will not count toward your 12-reference minimum requirement, but you can use them as appropriate beyond your 12 primary/secondary minimum reference requirement. Information on the Internet may or may not be reliable (including Wikipedia). However, pages affiliated with universities and their Extension services are generally reliable. Also, be aware that details may vary regionally depending on which state is providing the information.
    Instructions:
    Select a chemical in a specific contaminated site (geographical location) and/or media (soil, groundwater, sediment, air, surface water).
    Select your chemical and context on, or before, Wednesday, February 27th of Week 6. I do not need to approve your chemical prior to your selection, but I do require that you submit your chemical/topic to the assignment link online via Blackboard under Case Study (up to 5 pts. deducted from final case study paper if topic is not submitted on time). I will review your topic submission and let you know if I can help you refine it.
    The case study will examine sources, pathways, receptors and controls for your target chemical(s) in the target environment. Your paper will be submitted according to the required format and will reference major peer-reviewed work and reviews. You will review major sources of the chemical-natural or humanmade, fate and transport in the environment, toxicological endpoints in animals or humans and what environmental (natural or engineered) or regulatory controls aid in the mitigation of the exposure.
    Performance Expectations
    • Abstract, provide 250-300 word abstract naming your chemical and environmental/media site, rationale for studying this chemical/environment, summarize sources, pathways, receptors, controls, and conclusion. (Tip: Write your abstract last!)

• Introduction, provide a succinct (typically 1.5 to 3 pages) introduction including Explain the context in which you are analyzing the chemical. Why is it used or released (intentionally or unintentionally), geographical location(s) and environmental media. What are the environmental, human and/or animal, economic impacts? Why did you select this topic? *You will be elaborating on some of these components in sections A) through D) but introduce the elements here.

• A) Sources, IUPAC name, common name and chemical structure of your chemical. Identify the chemical class (e.g. organichlorine, metals/elements, radionuclides, etc.). The Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR) provides Chemical Classification information: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/index.asp. What are the distinguishing chemical properties of this class (liquid, solid, etc. flammable, odor, water solubility, persistence in environment, etc.). Is your chemical manufactured or natural, how is it produced? Why and how is it used and/or enters the environment? Timeline of production and use, production sources and rates, US and International?
• B) Pathways, What is the release mechanism into the environment and applicable media (air, water, soil, etc.) – How does it get there? Chemodynamics, environmental transport and fate of chemical in environment, metabolites (break-down products), half-life, and related data as appropriate to your chemical. How does chemical react in the environment?

• C) Receptors, What are target organs, cells, or nerve receptors and modes of toxicity in humans and/or animals? Exposure routes (dermal, inhalation, ingestion, etc.), movement in body. What are the attributes of your chemical exposure (occupational, drinking water, air, consumer products, etc.). Discuss acute and/or chronic toxicosis associated with your chemical. Chemical behavior in the body (absorption, distribution, storage of toxicants), teratogenic/mutagenic/carcinogenic?

• D) Controls, Analyze and discuss physiological, environmental, regulatory and/or engineered controls to mitigate, reduce or eliminate exposure to your chemical. Physiological controls include how the human or other animal body biotransforms and excretes the chemical or its metabolites. Environmental controls may involve variable interaction of your chemical with air, soil, water, sediment by geography or climate. Regulatory controls involve monitoring and enforcing regulations (or providing guidelines on recommendations) to minimize exposure and effect. You may focus on US or international regulatory controls and this may provide an interesting study of environmental law/policy. Engineered controls include environmental and civil engineering in natural and built environments to clean up, mitigate, manage, and/or prevent exposure (e.g., municipal water supplies, air emissions, etc.)

• Conclusion, 1-2 paragraphs stating your conclusions on sections A) through D) and areas for continued and future research and application. As appropriate, identify what is still unknown about the chemical/environment interaction. Statement on future implications of your chemical to the environment and human and animal populations