equality for animals

equality for animals


Choose and analyse one (1) of the articles below using the Module 3 Passage/Article Analysis Steps following the format taught in lectures. Write a 1,000 word, double-spaced, “Assessment Essay” following the format taught in lectures. USE THE SAME ARTICLE THAT YOU DID FOR ANNOTATION/SUMMARY ASSIGNMENT.


Choose and analyse one (1) of the following articles. Articles are posted in the “Module 3 Assignment Room” in the “Coaching and Mentoring Hall” on the Moodle course site.

Topic 3:
Singer, P. 1979. “Equality for Animals?” Excerpted from Practical Ethics, Cambridge, 1979, chap. 3.

Adapted from Saindon & Krek, Critical Thinking, p. 213, Table 8.1

Step Name Sub Step Activity
Clarify key concepts and unclear claims and phrases. Critical Thinking, pp. 217-218; For review, pp. 36-46.
– Make a note of:
o vague and ambiguous terms,
o euphemisms
o code words and double-speak
o emotive language
o prejudicial language
o analogies
o metaphors
o hypostatizations

Portray the basic argument structure in the passage.
Diagram of Argument
Identify the main and sub-arguments in the passage and supply missing premises. Critical Thinking, pp. 219-223; For review, chapter 3.
– Identify and state the main conclusion of the passage/article (stated or unstated).
– Identify and state the main stated premises or main stated reasons for believing the main conclusion.

Assess the concepts.
Define Concepts
Determine and define author’s use of concepts. Method outlined in lecture.
– State the 2 most main concepts around which the passage/article turns.
– Formulate the most main conceptual question around which the passage/article turns.
– Determine what the author means by the concepts, that is, give the author’s definitions of the concepts, in chart or list form. See method outlined in lecture.
– Complete a brief analysis (using the Conceptual Analysis Techniques taught in module 2) of the main concepts in the main conceptual question of the passage/article, the question that you formulated above. Use your results to give a tentative answer to the conceptual question.

Assess Concepts
Assess author’s use of concepts. Method outlined in lecture.
– Keeping your own analysis in mind, examine the author’s use of these same concepts. Answer the following 4 questions about the author’s use of the concepts:
o Are they clearly defined?
o Are they used in a sense that it too narrow or too wide?
o Are they used consistently or do they shift in meaning throughout the passage?
o Can their weaknesses be strengthened (i.e., positively criticized)?

Assess the arguments.
Final Detailed Diagram of Argument


Assess Arguments
Assess the specific arguments and overall argument. Critical Thinking, pp. 223-227; For review, chapters 5 & 7. Follow the method taught in class.
– Diagram a final, detailed diagram of the argument, including sub-arguments and unstated assumptions.
o Identify and state any reasons stated by the author in defense of the main premises in the preliminary argument from step 2 above.
o Separate out sub-arguments. Give the sub-arguments names.
o Identify and state any non-trivial or controversial unstated assumptions or unstated premises.

– Evaluate the specific arguments and overall argument by answering the following questions:
o Does the argument violate any of the three criteria for a good argument?
o Are there any clear and serious fallacies? If so, neutral the most clear and evident fallacy using the 6-step process for neutralizing fallacies.
o Can some of the arguments be made stronger (i.e., positively criticized)?