One man that expanded upon Freud’s polemic psychosexual theory of development was Erik Erikson. Erikson extended a psychosocial theory of development based on Freud’s stages. He reiterated that the ego causes definite additions to the development by attaining perspectives, concepts, and skills at every step of growth. These accomplishments assist children grow into flourishing, participating members of the public. During all of Erikson’s eight stages, there is a psychological struggle that must be successfully mastered in order to evolve into a normal, well-adjusted grown-up.
Ericksons approach is a development theory, so it defines people by naming a typical age of experiences and inferring if growth was healthy or left personality flaws (Cloninger, Allen, Friedman & Schustack, 2008).
In Erikson’s theory, personality is structured in the following manner. Stages 1-4 go from birth through age 11, the stages are:
Trust Vs Mistrust
Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative Vs. Guilt
Industry Vs. Inferiority
According to Erikson, during the indicated stages our characters are formed by our social and immediate support systems: our parents, our guardians, the school system, and the cultural support system.
Our Ego heavily depends on the indicated first four stages and consistently battles the basic Id. At that point, the Super Ego is being inculcated onto us through the models and habits that are presented at home and class. So, the dynamics of the nature structure are the Id versus the Ego.
The next stages,
Identity Vs. Role confusion
Intimacy Vs. Isolation
Generativity Vs. Stagnation
Ego Integrity Vs. Despair
are essentially structured by the person. It is during this stage at which point we put into use the teachings acquired from the first four stages. Here we oftentimes observe the “missing determinants” of persons that did not have functional childhoods or that were not corrected as kids. The dynamics that many times result are that the Ego is marred by an inclination to follow the basic Id, therefore producing grown-ups who are thoughtless, frustrated, or resentful. Missing developmental stages point to be duplicated to comply with half done business and midlife-crises are likely to come up. In full, it is during the outset of life that our temperaments should become formed and structured; it is the moment at which point ego should be encouraged and corrected. Failure to do so will result in underachieving and depressive grown-ups who could have resolve their problems had their guardians and direct support systems more caring, efficient and responsible.
Erikson along with many different researchers ascertained that his eight stages served as a model that endures across time and societies as well. Eriksons eight stages serve as a framework when it comes to explaining our society or even connecting it to a society that had lived a some centuries before. Nearly All empirical research based on Eriksons work grip around his attempts to learn an identity, but further around his viewpoint on teens. The Eriksonian theory is based on the basis that it has been described as well-equipped to solve the dilemma of early adulthood, this can be successfully attained once the crisis of youth has been solved.
Eriksons work had a tendency to give more consideration to infancy and teens, despite the so-called claim that his eight stages are an entire-life span approach. One major flaw of psychosocial theory is that the precise mechanisms for solving battles and going from one stage to the next are not adequately explained. The theory fall short to detail precisely what kind of occurrences are needed at each stage in order to successfully solve the conflicts and progress to the following step.
Since Ego theory is about personality structure and growth, then one must look at Personality Inventories and tests as the top assessments associated with Psychoanalytical theories of the ego such as Erikson’s.
One of the assessments is the widely-used Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory or MMPI-2. Questionnaires such as the MMPI present testers with over 500 parts to which they answer the way that they feel by responding “true or false”, or “cannot say” if relevant. The questions examines six significant categories which are: Test-Taking Attitudes, cognition, factor scales, interpersonal relations, moods and other problem areas.
Based on the answers given in tests like the MMPI-2, a developmental-based therapist using Erikson’s Life Span Approach can identify morbidity factors and their origin.
Another widely-used assessment of personality based on a Life Span Approach (LSA) is the Personality Research Form (PRF). This test is closer to Erikson’s LSA because it measures 22 areas which include most of the outcomes of Erikson theory, to include among them: achievement, aggression, autonomy, cognitive structure, dominance and endurance.
Erikson also maintains in Empirical data collecting and investigation as means to resolve personality structure points or the I dysfunction under the parameters of life span basis. Emotional intelligence measurement and the Inventory of Psychosocial Balance also measure directly the amount of results, or lack of ends, achieved by persons under Eriksonian viewpoint.
Referral Problems: 17 high school student, academic difficulties related to reading and writing, social difficulties with peers.
Childhood attachment difficulties are associated with childhood incipience of disruptive behavioral problems, as well as the development of later delinquent and disruptive activities and decreased development of compassion and connectedness to others. Attachments to parents and siblings customarily last a lifetime so serve as guides for connections in the broader realm of community, school, and
society. Within the family, children acquire the language, abilities, and social and ethical
importance of their society. And at all ages, they turn to family members for knowledge,
support and exciting and pleasurable intercommunication. Warm, satisfying family bonds foretell physical and mental well-being throughout growth. In opposition, isolation or estrangement from the family is many times linked with developmental problems.
The first approach is the method of Psychoanalysiss, that method states that the unconscious motivation control personality maturity. (About, 2011) The process of psychoanalyst is if one person that trained to listen to some other person seeks to bring together and explain the distress, limitations and difficulties from the persons past. And in the end enabling the patient to piece together his or her life story, all whilst bringing into the subject’s awareness the visualization of struggle that has troubled their perceptions and responses over the years, empowering them to make informed modifications to their habits and views.
The next approach is the cognitive system, the cognitive theory is a critical theory as it supplements several insights to the psychological study of human evolution. To explain what a cognitive theory is I will use the analogy of your conscience, the laws of cognitive theory are actively used in social cognitive theory, in which one observes the surroundings around them to conclude what is right or wrong as they communicate and experience their social surroundings setting one’s cognitive views. One of the most influential cognitive theorizers was a scientist called Jean Piaget. Mr. Piaget played a vital part in the world of cognitive theory as he investigated babies and started observing in what way they reason as their environmental influences their experiences, building permanent cognitive views and not just studying whatever they understand.
The concluding part I will review is the developmental theory, this approach is based on the development of school age to toddler age children. According to a developmental theory, presents a structure for interpreting the models and obstacles of childhood growth.
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