Geology

1. Describe the paths of water through the hydrologic cycle- Explain the processes and the energy gains and losses involved in the changes of
water between its 3 states- Operationally, we often most concerned with water does when it reaches the solid earth, both on the surface and in the
sub-surface- Explain the relationship between the saturated zone, the water table, a ground water well and the cone of depression, all within the
sub-surface-

2- The food chain is a valuable concept in biogeography- Give an example of a specific food chain, labeling the various levels of the food chain-
After looking at characteristics of food chains, explain how a geographer’s approach to the study of organisms might be different than biologist’s
study of organisms; what would each try to emphasize more than the other? What exactly is a biome? Compare/contrast the concept of the biome
with that of the zoogeographic region- Compare/contrast the floral characteristics of 2 of the following biomes: Desert, Tundra, Midlatitude Grassland
and Boreal Forest-

3- Theorize the difference in soil development in adjoining soils developed on forested, sloped area versus a grassed flat area- What are the soil-
forming factors? Explain the importance of the nature of the parent material to soil formation and type- Then, cite at least 2 examples in which the
influence of parent materials might be outweighed by other soil-forming factors- Explain the “struggle” between the internal and external processes
in shaping the Earth’s surface- What are the different ways that the surface of the Earth is changed over time?

4- Describe the general sequence of events in continental drift since the time of 5 separate continents 450 million years ago- What is the difference
between the older continental drift theory by Wegener and the more recent plate tectonic theory? Plate tectonics theory explains many seemingly
unrelated phenomena- Explain how the patterns of volcanoes and earthquakes related to plate tectonics- Explain several pieces of evidence that
combine to make the theory of plate tectonics the one that is generally accepted-

5- Provide a reason why some scientists believe the Pleistocene is over and a reason why other scientists believe we are now in an interglacial
stage- Some believe, for example, that since areas of pack ice and glacial ice still exist we are still in an ice age- Others, on the other hand, seeing
the rapid retreat of ice and snow pack in many areas, believes that this period of glaciation has ended- 80, using some otherjustifications, why do
we see some differences in interpretation? Is there some scientific data available that can support both sides view? If so, provide it- Why hasn’t this
controversy been solved? What impact does this division of views have on the public policies that are enacted by state, national and international
bodies?