Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations
Analyze the health status of a specific minority group. Select a minority group that is represented in the United States (examples include: American Indian/Alaskan
Native, Asian American, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander.)
In an essay of 750-1,000 words, compare and contrast the health status of the minority group you have selected to the national average. Consider the cultural,
socioeconomic, and sociopolitical barriers to health. How do race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and education influence health for the minority group you have
selected? Address the following in your essay:
What is the current health status of this minority group?
How is health promotion defined by the group?
What health disparities exist for this group?
Describe at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective given
the unique needs of the minority group you have selected. Provide an explanation of why it might be the most effective choice.
Cite a minimum of three references in the paper.
You will find important health information regarding minority groups by exploring the following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) links:
please use the link provided below and also book source chapter 1 health promotion through life span
Health Promotion in Nursing Care
Health promotion is defined as the process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health (World Health Organization, n.d.). It encompasses a
combination of health education and related organizational, political, and economic changes aimed at improving health (Hooyman & Kiyak, 1999). In addition, health
promotion focuses on helping individuals, families, and communities develop the competence and capabilities they require to gain control over day-to-day life events
and circumstances, thereby achieving a sense of security. Therefore, the ultimate goal of the health promotion model is to promote a sense of well-being, not just the
absence of disease.
Contemporary Versus Historical Health Promotion Perspective
Historically, the prevention of disease in society has been the focus of the public health movement. Success was measured by the eradication of, or inoculation for,
contagious and debilitating diseases. Thus, polio and small pox are now read about in our history books. However, recently there has been a move towards health
promotion. This movement has at its forefront, Healthy People.
Healthy People is a strategic management tool to implement nationwide health promotion and disease prevention initiatives. The 1979 Surgeon General’s Report first
introduced the program and placed it under the direction of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Its two main goals are: (1) to increase quality and years
of healthy living and (2) to eliminate health discrepancies (Fain & Lewis, 2002).
There have been several documents released by Healthy People with each having the primary goal of the prevention of illness and disease by promoting a healthy
environment and behavior. The latest document to be released is Healthy People 2020, which contains 42 areas for health improvement with approximately 600objectives
(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009). It continues to be a driving force in health promotion for today’s health care culture.
Importance of Health Promotion in Nursing Practice
There is a call to action for nurses to play a major role in shifting the health care system from a traditional illness and cure model to a health promotion and
disease prevention model. The driving force behind the global health promotion movement is the recognition that health is a fundamental human right that is inequitably
distributed within and between the countries of the globe. The purpose of a health promotion model, referred to in the literature as a primary health focus model, is
to improve population health and wellness, thus improving quality of life. The aim of the primary health care model is to construct a coordinated health care delivery
process by focusing on the Five Rs:
1. The right care.
2. The right patient.
3. The right provider.
4. The right environment.
5. The right cost-effective equipment and technology.
The ability to implement a health promotion plan effectively in the health/wellness continuum is the best avenue toward reducing health care expenses in a world of
ever increasing health care costs. Additionally, health promotion provides a mechanism to empower individuals and families alike to be responsible for their well-being
(Edelman & Mandle, 2010).
Levels of Health Promotion Prevention
The adage, prevention is better than cure, holds true in promoting health. Wexler (2003) outlines three levels of health prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary.
Primary prevention involves taking a proactive approach through health promotion and health education. Its goal is to decrease the risks of obtaining a disease before
it occurs. Health education on the risk of smoking for a group of nonsmoking preteens is an example of primary prevention.
Secondary prevention involves identification of a disease before symptoms begin to occur. It focuses on moving away from unhealthy behaviors and towards more healthy
habits. It also encourages screening and diagnostic testing for illnesses related to unhealthy behaviors. An example of secondary prevention is a campaign such as the
Great Smoke Out or other campaigns involving testing and screening of individuals for smoking-related illnesses.
Tertiary prevention efforts aim at reducing the effects of the disease process by restoration of functions. In tertiary prevention, the disease is already identified
and treatment has ensued. An example of tertiary prevention would involve physical therapy or speech therapy for an individual with a spinal injury.
An important factor to consider is that each level operates on a continuum and may overlap at times (Wexler, 2003). Therefore, being able to differentiate clearly
between the goals of each level of prevention is important.
The purview of nursing is the promotion of health. The current health reform environment is challenging nurses to reorient their practices to be consistent with
primary health care philosophy. Therefore, nursing plays a key role in developing new approaches to improving health. In addition, new strategies need to be developed
to recognize the essential role of an individual or families as active participants on the health promotion journey.
Edelman, C., & Mandle, C. L. (2010). Health promotion throughout the life span (7th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Fain, N. C., & Lewis, N. M. (2002, November). Wellness for individuals, families, and communities: Healthy People 2010. Journal of Family and Consumer Services,
Hooyman, N., & Kiyak, H. A. (1999). Social gerontology: A multidisciplinary perspective. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). (2009, January). Healthy People 2020. Retrieved March, 27, 2011, from
Wexler, B. (2003). Health and wellness: Illness among Americans. New York: Gale.
World Health Organization. (n.d.). About WHO. Retrieved December 21, 2007, from http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/
©2011. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.
Minority Health: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/index.html
Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH): http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/reach.htm
Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: http://www.samhsa.gov/specific-populations/racial-ethnic-minority
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.