Western opinion on China during the eighteenth century underwent radical change. Whereas earlier Europeans regarded China in highly idealized terms, late eighteenth century Europeans saw in China a hidebound and closed society, uninterested in new knowledge, science and innovation. Based on your readings of Emperor Kangxi’s “Self-Portrait,” Emperor Qianlong’s “Edict on Trade with Great Britain,” and Joanna Waley-Cohen’s “China and Western Technology in the Late Eighteenth Century,”* discuss China’s attitudes towards the West and the general validity of late eighteenth-century European claims.

The essay should reflect understanding of the subject, critical thinking skills, good grammar, and other mechanics of written communication. It should be prefaced by an introduction, and end with a concluding paragraph, summarizing the argument. Always give specific evidence for your generalizations, citing the source you are using. It must provide a bibliography at the end. Points will be deducted if you do not include these assigned readings. Other books and articles may also be consulted, if needed, provided they are bonafide. All online sources must show scholarly affiliation. If the web address ends in “.edu,” this means that his is an acceptable academic site and not a website hosted by a private individual. Wikipedia is not a reliable academic source. It will be take off points if material from Wikipedia is used. If you use online sources, make sure that you cite the legitimate online sources carefully and observe proper conventions of citation for quoting or paraphrasing this material.

Category 1: Argument and Organization. The topic and arguments are developed fully. The student recognizes the relevance, direction and objectives of the question. The answer is framed within the broader topic, develops a thesis statement or central idea and then constructs an argument with appropriate documentation and evidence. Readings are related to one another and compared, and conclusions are drawn on the basis of this analysis. The essay avoids being a “laundry list” of similarities and differences in the readings without a central argument. Enough attention is given to all the readings included. Primary sources are read critically, not accepted at face value or treated as secondary accounts. The organization of material is good. The argument flows is a logical sequence and is coherent.

Category 2: Style, clarity and grammar. The writing is clear, coherent and reads well. Transitions and flows are smooth. The essay is grammatically and orthographically correct. Always proofread and edit your essays after you have finished revising for content and organization.

Category 3: Formatting. The student follows prescribed citation conventions and cites where necessary. The essay must conform to Chicago style. There is a cover page and a bibliography. You may use either footnotes or endnotes.