How can students avoid massive amounts of student debt
Description of the assignment:
This is an argumentative paper based on the Toulmin model in which you will engage with multiple sources related to your chosen research topics (see list of potential issue questions/topics below). This paper can expand upon research that you have completed for your Research Essay. The main difference between the essays will be your explicit attention to an opposing viewpoint. As discussed in class, the Toulmin model of argumentation is based on a courtroom model in which you, as writers, will be forced to grapple with, address and ultimately disprove an alternate and opposing stance.
For example, if you choose to argue that the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour should not be raised, then you will not only have to present your research and supporting evidence, but also respond to a hypothetical opposition. This hypothetical opposition will take the position that the federal minimum wage should be raised.
Of particular importance is your awareness of potential rebuttals both present in chosen sources and hypothetical. Remember, the elements of the Toulmin system are similar to a classical argument: 1) Claim and Reason (enthymeme or thesis) 2) Grounds (evidence supporting your reason) 3) Warrant (underlying assumption, shared viewpoint of audience) 4) Backing (evidence supporting warrant) 5) Qualifiers (ways in which to avoid using broad generalizations that may or may not hold up when closely scrutinized or examined).
Class objectives that will be fulfilled through this assignment include, but are not limited to:
Apply concepts of the rhetorical triangle in developing and shaping arguments, particularly with a sense of adapting arguments to differing audiences and organizing longer essays
Evaluate, analyze and synthesize others’ ideas so as to develop and support argument and purposes
Paraphrase, summarize, and quote source material with increased accuracy and sophistication
Provide correct attribution (in-text and reference page) for a variety of source materials (scholarly, popular, on-ground, and on-line) using APA citation format.
Identify and practice the use of APA bibliographic citation style. Students will master the APA cover page (including use of running head), and will practice the conventions of in-text citations and reference lists
Understand and explain the logic and utility of citing sources
Identify, distinguish and practice the writing of summaries, paraphrases and direct quotations. They will master knowledge of the differences between these three forms of citations and will practice their appropriate uses.
Paraphrase passages from sources. Students will practice the writing of paraphrases (in which three consecutive words do not appear as written in the original text and in which both sentence structure and vocabulary of the original text have been altered)
Recognize that research is important in persuasive writing as a means of exploring a variety of perspectives.
The length of the assignment should be between 4-6 pages, this does not include the cover page or resources list.
These papers should focus on one specific, controversial issue related to contemporary labor/work in the United States. You are required to make an argument based on careful attention to and analysis of your chosen 6-8 sources. These sources should be diverse in content, thus allowing you to highlight multiple perspectives and their overall strengths and weaknesses. At least two of these sources should be pieces that oppose your argument by presenting an alternative stance related to your chosen topic.
I expect you to have a fully developed thesis statement at or near the end of your introductory paragraph. This thesis should encapsulate your argument in a way that highlights not only the relevance of your topic, but also your skillful critical engagement with your sources. Your argument should progress logically throughout your paper, utilizing the variety of sources you have chosen. Remember that engagement with the sources includes not only making use of direct quotation, summary or paraphrase, but also interpretation that indicates how your use of the sources advance your argument.
Since this is a formal academic research paper, appropriate language and tone is required throughout your essay. Unlike the exploratory essay, the use of personal pronouns are discouraged. Remember to incorporate varied uses of direct quotation, paraphrase and summary. Make sure to cite appropriately according to APA standards. If you have any questions about this, do not hesitate to contact me.
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