Infectious conjunctivitis

  1. Background of the case study (Total: 5 marks)
    1.1 What is infectious conjunctivitis?
    Infectious conjunctivitis is a common eye disease, also known as “sticky eye”— It is an inflammation of the lining of conjunctiva caused by bacteria or viral infection (Lee & Bishop, 2016).
    1.2 Of the four micro-organisms listed below, justify which one is more likely to be the cause of John’s eye infection. Indicate why the other micro-organisms from the list are least likely to cause the infection.

Legionella pneumophila
Yes or no, with reason:
Legionella pneumophila is a form of bacteria that is thin, flagellated, non-spore-forming, gram negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. This type of bacteria is responsible for Legionnaire’s disease and must be inhaled to cause disease which means the respiratory system is the most affected by this form of bacteria (Lee & Bishop, 2016). Therefore, Legionella pneumophilia is not the cause of John’s eye infection.

Plasmodium ovale
Yes or no, with reason:
Plasmodium ovale is a type of sporozoan that belongs to the genus Plasmodium which requires an insect vector. It is a common cause of a disease called Malaria in humans (Bullock & Manias, 2016). Therefore, Plasmodium ovale is not the cause of John’s eye infection.

Adenovirus
Yes or no, with reason:
One of the common cause of infectious conjunctivitis are viruses. Lee and Bishop (2016) explains that Adenovirus are mostly responsible for the infection of the conjunctiva however other viruses such as enteroviruses, zoster virus and herpes simplex virus may also be responsible. Thus, Adenovirus could be a possible cause of John’s eye infection if gentamicin is not working on the patient.

Staphylococcus aureus
Yes or no, with reason:
Staphylococcus aureus is a type of bacterium that can cause infection. Bacterial conjunctivitis usually occurs with patients suffering from redness, watery eyes and stinging sensation (Lee & Bishop, 2016). Therefore, Staphylococcus aureus can be the cause of John’s eye infection as John’s symptoms correlates to what Bacterial conjunctivitis is.

  1. Mechanism of action and adverse reactions (Total: 5 marks) (300 words in total)
    2.1 Describe the mechanism of action of gentamicin?
    Gentamicin is under the group of aminoglycosides bind to particular 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Bullock and Manias (2016) explains that the microbial growth and their effectiveness at therapeutic dose levels presents bactericidal properties. The spectrum of activity of gentamicin is effective against variety of Gram-negative bacteria and often used when the microorganisms are tested to be resistant to less toxic antibacterial agents.
    2.2 Name two adverse reactions of this drug?
    One of the adverse effects of gentamicin is nephrotoxicity which are the toxic effects on kidney. Another side effects from using gentamicin is neuromuscular paralysis which affects the neuromuscular junction. These adverse effects can be lessened by measuring peak and serum drug levels to ensure the desired range and by monitoring the patient for renal and vestibular functions (Bullock & Manias, 2016).
  2. Physiological basis of signs (Total: 10 marks) (500 words total)
    3.1 sign 1:
    Redness in the eye
    Explanation of this phenomenon:
    The redness in John’s eye is a result of infection due to his infectious conjunctivitis. This is called inflammation— Inflammation is explained as a nonspecific response to any tissue injury (Marieb & Hoehn, 2019). According to Marieb and Hoenh (2019), the cause of inflammation; redness occurs when there is an increase of blood flow in vasodilation of local arterioles to injured area. Linking to John’s infectious conjunctivitis, redness as a sign presents that the capillaries in the John’s eye are filled with more than blood than usual
    3.2 sign 2:
    Swelling
    Explanation of this phenomenon:
    Swelling is another physiological sign of inflammation. This can be due to fluid

3.3 sign 3:
Pain
Explanation of this phenomenon:

  1. Infection control issues (Total: 5 marks) (350 words total)
    4.1 Issue 1:
    Poor hand hygiene
    Discussion as to why this is an issue:
    Lack of hand hygiene results contributes to transmission of microorganism and infection. Applying the basic principles of infection prevention and control like hand hygiene to minimise infection risk to patients (Aziz, 2014).
    4.2 Issue 2:

Discussion as to why this is an issue:

  1. Transmission of infection (Total: 5 marks)
    5.1 Describe transmission from John to Mary:
  2. Breaking the chain of infection (Total: 5 marks)
    6.1 Identify procedure 1:

Describe how this effectively breaks the chain of infection:

6.2 Identify procedure 2:

Describe how this effectively breaks the chain of infection:

  1. Presentation (Total: 5 marks)
    7.1 Referencing in-text and in reference list conforms to APA 6th Ed. referencing style.
    7.2 Critique supported by relevant literature as prescribed.
    7.3 Correct sentence structure, paragraph, grammatical construction, spelling, punctuation and presentation.