Topic: Morality and Social Responsibility
Application: Morality and Social Responsibility
Philosophical perspectives and theories on morality contribute to an understanding of the deep-rooted human need to question the role human beings play in society. Whether your views align with those of Aristotle, Kant, or Mill, you can explore the reasons behind your inherent motivation to act responsibly. At the outset of your life, you develop habits of thought based on what you are exposed to, where you live, whom you live with, and your experiences. In this Application Assignment, you critically examine these experiences as well as theoretical perspectives on morality and assess how they impact your moral and cultural identity. You also assess how these experiences influence your concept of social responsibility.
To prepare for this Assignment:
Review the “Classical Theories of Morality” as described in Chapter 3 of the Arthur & Scalet (n.d.) course text and summarize key points of each theory. Does one theory resonate with you more than another?
Make connections to your own culture. Contemplate whether these three theories are reflected in your own culture.
Review the Cultural Genogram: Dimensions of Culture document in this week’s Resources. Consider the ways different dimensions of culture inform your moral identity (e.g., how your national, ethnic, and/or gender identity informs your moral identity).
Consider your response to this week’s Discussion.
Think about how different dimensions of culture inform your concept of social responsibility.
The Assignment: Has to be about Aristotle, John Stuart Mill, and Immanuel Kant developed the three theories of morality
Write a 2-page analysis connecting the three “Classical Theories of Morality” to your own cultural identity. Explain how the theories align or do not align with your cultural identity. Include how cultural identity impacts social responsibility. Provide three references using proper APA citation.
Try to use these books as references
Loeb, P. R. (2010). Soul of a citizen: Living with conviction in challenging times (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: St. Martin’s Griffin.
Chapter 1, “Making Our Lives Count” (pp. 21–41)
Scalet, S. & Arthur, J. (Eds.) (n.d.). Morality and moral controversies: Readings in moral, social, and political philosophy (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Chapter 1, “Leviathan: Morality as Rational Advantage” (pp. 3–10)
Chapter 3, “Classical Theories of Morality” (pp. 74–121)
Wilson, A. (Ed.). (1991). The golden rule. In World scripture: A comparative anthology of sacred texts (pp.114–115). St. Paul, MN: Paragon House.
Have to use the golden rule as a reference
The Golden Rule article
The Golden Rule Page 1of 3
THE GOLDEN RULE
The Golden Rule or the ethic of reciprocity is found in the scriptures of nearly every religion. It is often regarded as the most concise and general principle of ethics. I t is a condensation in one principle of all longer lists of ordinances such as the Decalogue. See also texts on Loving Kindness, pp. 967-73.
Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.
1 Judaism and Christianity. Bible, Leviticus 19.18
Therefore whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them
.2.Christianity. Bible, Matthew 7.12
Not one of you is a believer until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.
3.Islam. Forty Hadith of an-Nawawi 13
A man should wander about treating all creatures as he himself would be treated.
4.Jainism. Sutrakritanga 1.11.33
Try your best to treat others as you would wish to be treated yourself, and you will find that this is the shortest way to benevolence.
5.Confucianism. Mencius VII.A.4
One should not behave towards others in a way which is disagreeable to oneself. This is the essence of morality. All other activities are due to selfish desire.
6.Hinduism. Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva 113.8
Tsekung asked, “Is there one word that can serve as a principle of conduct
for life?” Confucius replied, “It is the word shu–reciprocity: Do not do to others what you do not want them to do to you.”
7.Confucianism. Analects 15.23
Leviticus 19.18: Quoted by Jesus in Matthew 22.36-40 (below). Mencius VII.A.4 and Analects 15.23: Cf. Analects 6.28.2, p. 975
Comparing oneself to others in such terms as “Just as I am so are they, just as they are so am I,” he should neither kill nor cause others to kill.
8. Buddhism. Sutta Nipata 705
One going to take a pointed stick to pinch a baby bird should first try it on himself to feel how it hurts.
9. African Traditional Religions. Yoruba Proverb (Nigeria)
One who you think should be hit is none else but you. One who you think should be governed is none else but you. One who you think should be tortured is none else but you. One who you think should be enslaved is none else but you. One who you think should be killed is none else but you. A sage is ingenuous and leads his life after comprehending the parity of the killed and the killer. Therefore, neither does he cause violence to others
nor does he make others do so.
10.Jainism. Acarangasutra 5.101-2
The Ariyan disciple thus reflects, Here am I, fond of my life, not wanting to die, fond of pleasure and averse from pain. Suppose someone should rob me of my life… it would not be a thing pleasing and delightful to me. If I, in my turn, should rob of his life one fond of his life, not wanting to die, one fond of pleasure and averse from pain, it would not be a thing pleasing or delightful to him. For a state that is not pleasant or delightful to me must also be to him also; and a state that is not pleasing or delightful to me, how could I inflict that upon another? As a result of such reflection he himself abstains from taking the life of creatures and he encourages others so to abstain, and speaks in praise of so abstaining.
11.Buddhism. Samyutta Nikaya v.353
A certain heathen came to Shammai and said to him, “Make me a proselyte, on condition that
You teach me the whole Torah while I stand on one foot.” Thereupon he repulsed him with the rod which was in his hand. When he went to Hillel, he said to him, “What is hateful to you, do not do to your neighbor: that is the whole Torah; all the rest of it is commentary; go and learn.”
12. Judaism. Talmud, Shabbat 31a Sutta Nipata 705: Cf. Dhammapada 129-130, p. 478.
Acarangasutra 5.101 -2: Cf. Dhammapada 129-130, p. 478. Samyutta Nikaya v.353: The passage gives a similar reflection about abstainingfrom other types of immoral behavior: theft, adultery, etc. To identify oneself with others is also a corollary to the Mahayana insight that all reality is interdependent and mutually related; cf. Guide to a Bodhisattva’s Way of Life 8.112-16, p. 181; Majjhima Nikaya i.415, p. 465.
“Master, which is the great commandment in the law? Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.”
13.Christianity. Bible, Matthew 22.36-40
Matthew 22.36-40: Cf. Deuteronomy 6.4-9, p. 55; Leviticus 19.18, p. 173; Luke 10.25-37, p. 971;Galatians 6.2, p. 974; Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 5.2.2, p. 9
72; Sun Myung Moon, 9-30-79, p. 150.
Wilson, Andrew. World Scripture: A Comparative Anthology of Sacred Texts
St. Paul: Paragon House. 1998