muscle (cardiac, skeletal, smooth)

muscle (cardiac, skeletal, smooth)

Function of the muscular system: movement – antagonistic pairs (agonist, antagonist); fixator; synergist; types of contraction (isometric, concentric, eccentric, isokinetic)

Fibre types: Type 1; Type 2a; Type 2b; characteristics; types of sports each are associated with

3 Know the structure and function of the cardiovascular system

Structure of the cardiovascular system: heart (atria, ventricles, bicuspid valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve, aorta, vena cava – superior and inferior, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery); blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, venuoles)

Function of the cardiovascular system: delivery of oxygen and nutrients; removal of waste products; thermoregulation (vasodilation and vasoconstriction of vessels); function of blood (oxygen transport, clotting, fighting infection)

4 Know the structure and function of the respiratory system

Structure of the respiratory system: nasal cavity; epiglottis; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchus; bronchioles; lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli); diaphragm; intercostal muscles (external and internal)

Function: gaseous exchange; mechanisms of breathing (inspiration and expiration); lung volumes, eg tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume; control of breathing (neural and chemical)

5 Know the different types of energy systems

Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid system; aerobic energy system; amount of ATP produced by each system; sports that use these systems to provide energy; recovery time.

Grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the evidence must
show that the learner is able to:
To achieve a merit grade the evidence must
show that, in addition to the pass criteria,
the learner is able to:
To achieve a distinction grade the evidence
must show that, in addition to the pass and
merit criteria, the learner is able to:
P1  describe the structure and function of the skeletal system

P2  describe the different
classifications of joints

P3  identify the location of
the major muscles in the
human body

P4  describe the function of
the muscular system and
the different fibre types
M1 explain the function of
the muscular system and
the different fibre types
D1  analyse the function of
the muscular system and
the different fibre types

P5  describe the structure
and function of the
cardiovascular system
M2 explain the function of the
cardiovascular system
P6  describe the structure
and function of the
respiratory system
M3  explain the function of the
respiratory system

P7  describe the three different
energy systems and their
use in sport and exercise
activities.
M4  explain the three different
energy systems and their
use in sport and exercise
activities.
D2  analyse the three
different energy systems
and their use in sport and
exercise activities.

Unit 1
Teaching Resource
Task 1

1 Know the structure and function of the skeletal system

Structure of skeletal system: axial skeleton; appendicular skeleton; types of bone (long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, sesamoid bones); location of major bones (cranium, clavicle, ribs, sternum, humerus, radius, ulna, scapula, ilium, pubis, ischium, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, vertebral column – cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)

Function of skeletal system: support; protection; attachment for skeletal muscle; source of blood cell production; store of minerals

Joints: fixed; slightly moveable; synovial/freely moveable (types, structures, movement at each joint)

Grading Criteria for assessment of Task 1
P1  describe the structure and function of the skeletal system

P2  describe the different
classifications of joints

Assignment 1.1 has the following parts:
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
Activity 4

Assessment Assignment 1.1

Date set

Submission Date

Overview

The Human body is made up of many different systems that work together and allow us to take part in a huge variety of sport and exercise activities. The skeletal and muscular systems work together to allow our bodies to perform a vast range of different movements.

Scenario

Activity 1

Using page 4 in your textbook, complete the diagram of the Anterior and Posterior view of the skeleton labelling all the bones of the human skeleton.

You should ensure that the following bones are labelled:
Structure of skeletal system: axial skeleton; appendicular skeleton; types of bone (long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, sesamoid bones); location of major bones (cranium, clavicle, ribs, sternum, humerus, radius, ulna, scapula, ilium, pubis, ischium, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, vertebral column – cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)

You should also ensure that you have identified the different types of bones that make up the spine. Using the template of the spine below and pages 9 and 10 in your textbook, identify the 5 areas of the spine. Once you have completed this complete the table providing a description of each of the 5 areas of the spine.

Area of the Spine
Description
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Activity 2

Page 5 of your textbook describes the Axial and Appendicular Skeleton. Complete the table below Describing the structure and function of the skeletal system (P1).

Axial Skeleton

Description of structure
Image
a)

b)

c)

Appendicular Skeleton

Description of structure
Image
a)

b)

c)

d)

There are many different types of bones in the body. They are classified into five types. Using pages 6 and 7 of your textbook to help you complete the table below naming the five classifications of bones and using diagrams where appropriate illustrate your answer.

Type of major bone
Illustration
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Activity 3

The skeleton has 5 major functions using page 10 in your textbook, complete the table below Describing the functions of the skeletal system (P1).

Function of the skeletal system
Description
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Activity 4

There are three types of joints. Fixed, Slightly movable and Synovial. Using the three types of joints as sub headings, write a series of short paragraphs Describing the different classifications of joints (P2) for each of the types of joints where possible you should use illustrations to support your answer. Pages 10 and 11 of your textbook will help you with your answer.

You should ensure that you use the following sub headings;

Joints: fixed; slightly moveable; synovial/freely moveable (types, structures, movement at each joint)

Activity 5
When studying the body during movement, it is important to have an understanding of the range of different movements that joints are capable of performing.

Using pages 12 and 13 complete the table below identify the types of movement providing a description and an image of each.

Type of movement    Description    Image

Hint
P1
For P1, learners must describe the axial and appendicular skeleton, the different types of bone in the skeleton and be able to locate all of the named bones stated in the Unit content. They must also describe the function of the skeletal system.

P2

For P2, learners need to be able to describe all three classifications of joint and the amount of movement available at each. This also includes the movement allowed at each of the synovial joints.

Grading Criteria

This assignment will assess P1 AND p2

P1

Describe the structure and function of the skeletal system

P2

Describe the different classifications of joints
Useful Resources
Barker R et al — BTEC National Sport: Sports Development and Fitness Options
(Heinemann, 2004)

Dalgleish J et al — The Health & Fitness Handbook (Longman, 2001)

Heyward V — Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription (Human
Kinetics, 2006)

Honeybourne J — BTEC National Sport (Nelson Thornes, 2004)

Lawrence M — The Complete Guide to Core Stability (A and C Black, 2003)

Sharkey B and Gaskill E — Fitness and Health (Human Kinetics, 2006)

British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences www.bases.org.uk

Human Kinetics www.humankinetics.com

Top End Sports www.topendsports.com

Task 2
2 Know the structure and function of the muscular system

Muscular system: major muscles (biceps, triceps, deltoids, pectoralis major, rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, erector spinae, teres major, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, obliques, gluteus maximus); function; location; types of muscle (cardiac, skeletal, smooth)

Function of the muscular system: movement – antagonistic pairs (agonist, antagonist); fixator; synergist; types of contraction (isometric, concentric, eccentric, isokinetic)

Fibre types: Type 1; Type 2a; Type 2b; characteristics; types of sports each are associated with

Grading Criteria for assessment of Task 2
P3  identify the location of
the major muscles in the
human body

P4  describe the function of
the muscular system and
the different fibre types
M1 explain the function of
the muscular system and
the different fibre types
D1  analyse the function of
the muscular system and
the different fibre types

Assignment 1.2 has the following parts:

Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
Activity 4
Activity 5

Assessment Assignment 1.2

Date set

Submission Date

Overview

The Human body is made up of many different systems that work together and allow us to take part in a huge variety of sport and exercise activities. The skeletal and muscular systems work together to allow our bodies to perform a vast range of different movements.

Scenario

Activity 1

Label the diagram of the muscles of the human body Identify the location of the major muscles in the human body (P3).

When labelling the diagram you should ensure that the following muscles are labelled;

Muscular system: major muscles (biceps, triceps, deltoids, pectoralis major, rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, erector spinae, teres major, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, obliques, gluteus maximus); function; location;

You should also ensure that you write a short paragraph detailing the following types of muscle;

types of muscle (cardiac, skeletal, smooth)

Activity 2

Produce a document to Describe (P4) and Explain (M1) the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types.

You should ensure that you use the following sub headings in your answer;

Function of the muscular system: movement – antagonistic pairs (agonist, antagonist); fixator; synergist; types of contraction (isometric, concentric, eccentric, isokinetic)

You should also ensure that you describe and explain the different types of muscle;

Fibre types: Type 1; Type 2a; Type 2b; characteristics; types of sports each are associated with

Activity 3

Produce an assignment to Analyse the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types (D1).

Hint
P3

For P3, learners must be able to identify the location of the named muscles in the Unit content, including the three types of muscle.

P4

For P4, learners must describe the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types (Type 1, Type 2a, Type 2b).

M1

For M1, which links to P4, learners need to explain the function of the muscular system and the three different muscle fibre types.

D1

D1 builds on M1, and requires learners to analyse the function of the muscular system and the different muscle fibre types.

Grading Criteria
P3
Identify the locations of the major muscles in the human body
P4
Describe the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types
M1
Explain the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types
D1
Analyse the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types

Useful Resources
Barker R et al — BTEC National Sport: Sports Development and Fitness Options
(Heinemann, 2004)

Dalgleish J et al — The Health & Fitness Handbook (Longman, 2001)

Heyward V — Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription (Human
Kinetics, 2006)

Honeybourne J — BTEC National Sport (Nelson Thornes, 2004)

Lawrence M — The Complete Guide to Core Stability (A and C Black, 2003)

Sharkey B and Gaskill E — Fitness and Health (Human Kinetics, 2006)

British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences www.bases.org.uk

Human Kinetics www.humankinetics.com

Top End Sports www.topendsports.com

Task 3, 4 and 5
3 Know the structure and function of the cardiovascular system

Structure of the cardiovascular system: heart (atria, ventricles, bicuspid valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve, aorta, vena cava – superior and inferior, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery); blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, venuoles)

Function of the cardiovascular system: delivery of oxygen and nutrients; removal of waste products; thermoregulation (vasodilation and vasoconstriction of vessels); function of blood (oxygen transport, clotting, fighting infection)

4 Know the structure and function of the respiratory system

Structure of the respiratory system: nasal cavity; epiglottis; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchus; bronchioles; lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli); diaphragm; intercostal muscles (external and internal)

Function: gaseous exchange; mechanisms of breathing (inspiration and expiration); lung volumes, eg tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume; control of breathing (neural and chemical)

5 Know the different types of energy systems

Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid system; aerobic energy system; amount of ATP produced by each system; sports that use these systems to provide energy; recovery time.

Grading Criteria for assessment of Task 3,4 and 5
P5  describe the structure
and function of the
cardiovascular system
M2 explain the function of the
cardiovascular system
P6  describe the structure
and function of the
respiratory system
M3  explain the function of the
respiratory system

P7  describe the three different
energy systems and their
use in sport and exercise
activities.
M4  explain the three different
energy systems and their
use in sport and exercise
activities.
D2  analyse the three
different energy systems
and their use in sport and
exercise activities.

Assessment Assignment 1.3
Assessment Assignment 1.3

Date set

Submission Date

Overview

The Human body is made up of many different systems that work together and allow us to take part in a huge variety of sport and exercise activities. The skeletal and muscular systems work together to allow our bodies to perform a vast range of different movements.

Scenario

Activity 1

This is a practical activity which involves you dissecting a heart, once you have dissected the heart, you should complete the diagram of the heart below.

You should use the image on page 21 to help you complete the diagram. You should also ensure that the following labels are included in your diagram;

Structure of the cardiovascular system: heart (atria, ventricles, bicuspid valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve, aorta, vena cava – superior and inferior, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery); blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, venuoles)
Activity 2

After completing the diagram, you should complete a report Describing (P5) and Explaining (M2) the function of the cardiovascular system.

Within your answer you should ensure that you include the following points;

Structure of the cardiovascular system: heart (atria, ventricles, bicuspid valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve, aorta, vena cava – superior and inferior, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery); blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, venuoles)

Function of the cardiovascular system: delivery of oxygen and nutrients; removal of waste products; thermoregulation (vasodilation and vasoconstriction of vessels); function of blood (oxygen transport, clotting, fighting infection)

Activity 3

Produce a report Describing (P6) and Explaining (M3) the structure and function of the respiratory system.

Your report should include the following points;

Structure of the respiratory system: nasal cavity; epiglottis; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchus; bronchioles; lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli); diaphragm; intercostal muscles (external and internal)

Function: gaseous exchange; mechanisms of breathing (inspiration and expiration); lung volumes, eg tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume; control of breathing (neural and chemical)

Activity 4

Produce a report that Describes (P7) and Explains (M4) the three different energy systems and their use in sport and exercise activities.
Your report should include the following points;
Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid system; aerobic energy system; amount of ATP produced by each system; sports that use these systems to provide energy; recovery time.

Activity 5
Produce a report that Analyses the three different energy systems and their use in sport and exercise activities (D1).

Hint
P5

For P5, learners must be able to describe the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, which includes all parts named in the Unit content.

P6

For P6, learners must describe the structure and function of the respiratory system, which includes all parts named in the Unit content, including gaseous exchange and the mechanism of breathing.

P7

For P7, learners must be able to describe each of the energy systems named in the Unit content and relate the energy systems to their use in different sport and exercise activities.

M2

For M2, learners must examine the cardiovascular system and explain how it works and how each part of the system is designed to meet its function.

M3

For M3, learners must examine the respiratory system and explain how it works and how each part of the system is designed to meet its function.

M4

For M4, learners must examine each energy system and explain its use in a variety of sport and exercise activities.

D2

Grading criterion D2 builds on M4, and requires learners to analyse three different energy systems and their use in a wide variety of sport and exercise activities.

Grading Criteria
P3
Identify the locations of the major muscles in the human body
P4
Describe the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types
M1
Explain the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types
D1
Analyse the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types

Useful Resources
Barker R et al — BTEC National Sport: Sports Development and Fitness Options
(Heinemann, 2004)

Dalgleish J et al — The Health & Fitness Handbook (Longman, 2001)

Heyward V — Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription (Human
Kinetics, 2006)

Honeybourne J — BTEC National Sport (Nelson Thornes, 2004)

Lawrence M — The Complete Guide to Core Stability (A and C Black, 2003)

Sharkey B and Gaskill E — Fitness and Health (Human Kinetics, 2006)

British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences www.bases.org.uk

Human Kinetics www.humankinetics.com

Top End Sports www.topendsports.com

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