Section 2 vocab
Statistical Process Control: is a method of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied in order to monitor and control a process. Monitoring and controlling the process ensures that it operates at its full potential. At its full potential, the process can make as much conforming product as possible with a minimum (if not an elimination) of waste (rework or scrap).
Poka-yoke: is a Japanese term that means “mistake-proofing”. A poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur.
5-S: is the name of a workplace organization method that uses a list of five Japanese words: seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke. Transliterated or translated into English, they all start with the letter “S”. The list describes how to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and storing the items used, maintaining the area and items, and sustaining the new order.
ISO 9000: The ISO 9000 family of quality management systems standards is designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product. ISO 9000 deals with the fundamentals of quality management systems.
TS 16949: is an ISO technical specification aimed at the development of a quality management system that provides for continual improvement, emphasizing defect prevention and the reduction of variation and waste in the supply chain.
Materials Requirement Planning (MRP): is a production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Most MRP systems are software-based, while it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well.
An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet three objectives:
1. Ensure materials are available for production and products are available for delivery to customers.
2. Maintain the lowest possible material and product levels in store
3. Plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities.
Enterprise requirement Planning (ERP): is a business management software usually a suite of integrated applications that a company can use to collect, store, manage and interpret data from many business activities, including:-
1. Product planning, cost and development
2. Manufacturing or service delivery
3. Marketing and sales
4. Inventory management
5. Shipping and payment
Pull Systems: In logistics chains or supply chains the stages are operating normally both in push- and pull-manner. Push production is based on forecast demand and pull production is based on actual or consumed demand.
Kanban: Kanban is a system to control the logistical chain from a production point of view, and is not an inventory control system. Kanban was developed by Taiichi Ohno, at Toyota, as a system to improve and maintain a high level of production.
Total Quality Management: consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make permanent a climate in which an organization continuously improves its ability to deliver high quality products and services to customers.
Lean Manufacturing: “lean”, is a production philosophy that considers the expenditure of resources in any aspect other than the direct creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination.
Value Stream Mapping: is a lean-management method for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the customer. At Toyota, it is known as “material and information flow mapping”. It can be applied to nearly any value chain.
Takt Time: derived from the German word Taktzeit, translated best as meter, is the theoretical maximum unit production time to meet the customer demand rate. Industrial manufacturing lines must have production cycle times at least as short as the takt time so that production can be matched to customer demand.
One Piece Flow: One Piece Flow refers to the concept of moving one workpiece at a time between operations within a workcell. At the opposite extreme, we might process an entire batch or lot at each operation before moving it to the next operation.
Single Minute Exchange of Die: is one of the many lean production methods for reducing waste in a manufacturing process. It provides a rapid and efficient way of converting a manufacturing process from running the current product to running the next product. This rapid changeover is key to reducing production lot sizes and thereby improving flow (Mura).
Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE): Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a hierarchy of metrics developed by Seiichi Nakajima in the 1960s to evaluate how effectively a manufacturing operation is utilized. It is based on the Harrington Emerson way of thinking regarding labor efficiency. If for example the cycle time is reduced, the OEE will increase i.e. more product is produced for less resource.
Flow Velocity: to have a continues flow of products at a constant rate.
Productivity: Productivity is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in the production process,
Facility Layout: Facility layout and design is an important component of a business’s overall operations, both in terms of maximizing the effectiveness of the production process and meeting the needs of employees. The basic objective of layout is to ensure a smooth flow of work, material, and information through a system.
Jidoka (autonomation): machines ability to detect abnormalities and stop the process. Operators have the same authority.
Machine Reliability: The ability of amachine, or system to consistently perform its intended or required function or mission, on demand and without degradation or failure.
Total Productive Maintenance: is a system of maintaining and improving the integrity of production and quality systems through the machines, equipments, processes and employees that add business value to the organization. TPM focuses on keeping all equipment in top working condition to avoid breakdowns and delays in the manufacturing process.
Value Added Ratio/ non-value added ratio:
Value added ratio: Value-added work is the work that is actually valuable and results in a finished product. Keep in mind that a customer is only going to want to pay for value; if they feel that their money is being wasted as a result of insufficient processes, the customer will take his business elsewhere.
non-value added ratio: Non-value added work, also called waste, refers to work that doesn’t add value to or is unnecessary for the overall project.
Line Balancing: A production strategy that involves setting an intended rate of production for required materials to be fabricated within a particular time frame. In addition, effective line balancing requires assuring that every line segment’s production quota can be met within the time frame using the available production capacity.
Handling Reduction: how to handle the reduction of employees in work force .
Product quantity routing data analysis:
• (Product Quantity) is a analysis to determine the top 20% products or services that make up 80% of work volume
is a Matrix that determines product families by grouping of products with similar process flows.
Product family types: A group of related goods that are manufactured by a single company. Companies benefit from creating product families in that they can leverage the loyalty their existing customers feel toward an existing product to get them to buy additional, related products.
Gantt Charts: is a type of bar chart, developed by Henry Gantt in the 1910s, that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project.
First pass quality process: is defined as the number of units coming out of a process divided by the number of units going into that process over a specified period of time.
Kaizen (Continuous Improvement): One of the key terms in the lean vocabulary, this refers to the need to continuously improve upon current processes. Continuous Improvement does not stop until all waste is eliminated.
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