Orientation and exploration

Chapter 6 Respond to 2 of the following questions:

1) The central process during the initial stage of a group is orientation and exploration. List the processes that are included in the initial stage of a group. What are the concerns in the initial stage? Discuss the Cultural Considerations. Give an example of a Cultural Consideration. In your role as a group leader you can minimize reluctance on the part of members by inviting a discussion of how they could participate in the group in a way that does not violate their cultural norms and values. Explain how you might invite this discussion.

2) Identify are some common fears of participants in groups. In the initial stage, we begin by asking group members to identify their fears and begin to explore them. How could you help build a trusting atmosphere?

3) A common form of resistance in groups relates to the presence of a hidden agenda— an issue that is not openly acknowledged and discussed. Give an example of how a group leader could clear up a hidden agenda. What can happen to the group if a hidden agenda is not addressed?

4) Conflict can emerge in any stage of group work, although it is most common later during the transition stage. Conflict that arises early in a group must be adequately dealt with, or it is likely to inhibit the cohesion of the group. How would you handle conflict –give an example.

5) A characteristic of many members in beginning groups is the tendency to talk about others and to focus on people and situations outside of the group. What are the reasons individuals talk excessively in groups and how would you respond to this person in a groups. Give an example.

6) During the initial sessions, we ask members to make connections between personal problems they are facing in their world and their experience in the group. If a member discloses that she feels isolated in her life, how would you handle this in a group?

7) If a basic sense of trust is not established at the outset of a group, problems are likely to arise later. What are signs that members are developing trust? In contrast, what are signs of a lack of trust? Establishing trust is a central task for the initial stage of a group. It is not possible to overemphasize the significance of the leader’s modeling and the attitudes expressed through the leader’s behavior in these early sessions. What types of modeling behavior is important for a group lead to establish trust? If you are co-leading a group, you and your colleague have ample opportunities to model a behavioral style that will promote trust. Give examples.

8) How might co-leaders and members demonstrate a lack of attending in a group? People often express themselves more honestly nonverbally than they do verbally. Detecting discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal behavior is an art to be learned. Give an example of how you as a group leader would comment on discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal behavior. Another avenue for helping clients to give full expression to their feelings is by asking clients to pay attention to what they are experiencing physically. Give an example.

9) One of your leadership functions is to help members develop greater empathy by pointing out behaviors that block this understanding. Give examples of these behaviors and how you would address this in the group. On p 181 How does Clyde help Judy?

10) Genuineness implies congruence between a person’s inner experience and what he or she projects externally. Applied to your role as a leader, genuineness means that you do not pretend to be accepting when internally you are not feeling accepting, you do not rely on behaviors that are aimed at winning approval, and you avoid hiding behind a professional role as a leader. Give an example of a leader expressing Genuineness.

11) Your authenticity can sometimes be expressed in appropriate self-disclosure. Give an example. In some cases, the willingness of a leader to engage in self- disclosure is both culturally appropriate and a way to create trust. Give an example.

12) Respect is shown by what the leader and the members actually do, not simply by what they say. What attitudes and actions demonstrate respect?

13) When confrontations are made in an abrasive, “ hit- and- run” fashion, or if the leader allows verbal abuse, trust is greatly inhibited. Attacking comments or aggressive confrontations close people up by making them defensive, but caring confrontations help members learn to express even negative reactions in a way that respects those they are confronting. Given an example.

14) A major task during the initial stage is for leaders to assist members in identifying and clarifying specific goals that will influence their participation. What are some general group goals? What are some questions to assist clients in identifying their goals for counseling?

15) Regardless of the type of therapeutic group, leaders have the task of helping participants develop concrete goals that will give them direction. Participants are typically able to state only in broad terms what they expect to get from a group. It is critical that members learn how to translate general goals into measurable ones. Give an example of help a group member define a concrete and measurable goal.

16) Establishing a contract is one excellent way for members to clarify and attain their personal goals. Define what is meant by a contract. What type of a Group uses a contract?

17) What are Group norms? What are implicit norms? Give an example. Norms are less likely to have a negative impact if they are made explicit. Give two example of explicit norms. Why are explicit norms important? How should group norms be developed? It is important to establish norms that are developmentally appropriate for the group. Explain.

18) Group cohesion is a sense of togetherness, or community, within a group. A cohesive group is one in which members have incentives for remaining in the group and share a feeling of belongingness and relatedness. What are some indicators of this initial degree of cohesion among members? What are ways group cohesion can be developed, maintained, and increased?

19) Forging an effective group requires achieving an appropriate balance between support and confrontation. What are the dangers in confronting too soon?

20) What are guidelines for group leadership practice based on research summaries? How might you present this information to a group? Groups members should be told that it does not make sense to open up quickly without a foundation of safety. How do you create this safe and trusting environment is for the group members?

21) Sometimes members keep their feelings of disinterest, anger, or disappointment a secret from the rest of the group. It is most important that persistent feelings related to the group process be aired. Give an example of how you as a group leader would invite a group member to share those feelings.

22) In certain groups people learn a new language that can remove them from their direct experiences. For example, they may learn phrases such as “ I can really relate to you,” “ I want to get closer to my feelings,” “ I feel connected with you,” and “ I’d like to stop playing all these games with myself.” If terms such as relate to, get closer to, and connected with are not clearly defined and reserved for certain circumstances, the quality of communication will be poor. How would you ask a group member to describe what they mean by one of these phrases.

23) Group members are sometimes led to believe that the more they disclose about themselves, the better. Members should be cautioned, however, about the dangers of “ paying member-ship dues” by striving to reveal the biggest secret. Self- disclosure is not a process of making oneself psychologically naked. Members need to know time and again that they are responsible for deciding what, how much, and when they will share personal conflicts pertaining to their everyday life. Give an example.

24) If members assume the stance of not contributing, others will never come to know them, and they can easily feel cheated and angry at being the object of others’ perhaps flawed observations. We attempt to teach these members to share their reactions to their experience in the group as well as to let others know how they are being affected. Give an example.

25) Members need to be prepared for the fact that not everyone will like or accept some of the changes they want to make. Give an example.

26) When members explore intense feelings of pain in a group, they may come to realize that this unrecognized and unexpressed pain is blocking them from living a truly joyous life. Give an example.

27) Group members can be taught to listen carefully to what the other members say about them, neither accepting it entirely nor rejecting it outright. What would you tell them about listening?

28) Members will learn that feedback is a valuable source of information that they can use in assessing what they are doing in the group and how their behavior is affecting others. What would say to a member to encourage them to appreciate feedback?

29) It is important for people not to fatalistically pin labels on themselves, and the group should not fulfill these expectations, thereby further convincing members that they are what they fear. What would you say to this group member?

30) There is a delicate balance between providing too much structure and failing to give enough structure and information. Explain.

31) How can journal writing exercises and homework add to the group experience?

32) What are the disadvantage of high directive group leadership and leaders who assume little responsibility for what occurs in their groups? What groups have a high degree of structure and what groups have a limited degree of leader structuring?

33) For groups that meet on a regular basis, such as once a week, what are some procedures to open each session in an effective way? What are some examples of opening remarks? What are guidelines for closing a weekly group? What are examples of closing remarks? 34) 35) 36)