Philosophy paper

choose one of the following passages:
1. Passages
• Passage 1 (13A(b)).
If the conclusion that a god exists is to be demonstrably certain, then these premises [from
which it follows] must be certain. . . (1). But we know that no empirical proposition can
ever be anything more than probable (2). It is only “a priori” propositions [propositions
like “all bachelors are unmarried males,” which are true in virtue of the meanings of the
terms involved in the sentence] that are logically certain (3). But we cannot deduce the
existence of god from an “a priori” proposition (4). For we know that the reason why “a
priori” propositions are certain is that they are tautologies [statements that are necessarily
true] (5). And from a set of tautologies nothing but a further tautology can be validly
deduced (6). It follows that there is no possibility of demonstrating the existence of god
(7).
• Passage 2 (13A(d)).
¶1
I’m a Catholic and I believe that any marriage is worth saving (1). But I’m also pragmatic
and I have even recommended a couple of friends go ahead with their decision to divorce
their partners (2). This is because I believe divorce is not always bad (3).
¶2
Worst case scenario for a divorce is spousal abuse (4). Sure, the couple can go to see a
counsellor on that matter (5). In many cases, however, it is probably safer for the abused
spouse to just leave (6). Here, divorce isn’t such a bad thing (7). It might even save one’s
life (8).
¶3
Then there is the irreparable difference, unresolved by marriage counseling (9). When the
couples don’t even talk to each other anymore or can’t stand each other anymore perhaps
to the point of only wanting to hurt each other’s feelings, divorce seems to be the best
strategy (10).
¶4
What about children (11)? That’s the hardest factor in deciding to divorce (12). Children
do thrive better when their parents are together (13). I remain, however, a little bit
1
skeptical, especially considering the possible short- and long-term emotional and social
effects on children when their parents can’t stand each other anymore (14). Isn’t it the
children’s right, too, to experience that their parents are happy individuals unrestrained by
their marital statuses (15)? And don’t children thrive well when their parents are happy
even when separated (16)?
¶5
In sum, no, divorce is not always bad (17). There are circumstances where the benefits of
divorce exceed its cost (18). This is, however, not an excuse to make divorce as the feasible
exit strategy when things go awry in a marriage (19). There are ways to resolve dilemmas
or problems in any marriage (20). It only takes courage, patience, and perseverance, and
the desire to save the marriage (21).
• Passage 3 (13A(f)).
Look around today and you can see for yourself that most of the organisms you come across
are not making it into the fossil record (1). It takes a rather special combination of physical
factors—usually those of swamps or estuaries where remains can be buried in sediment, be
compacted and, if lucky, remain undisturbed for millions of years—for the bones or imprints
of an organism to achieve a measure of immortality in stone (2). To then become part of the
scientific body of evidence, they have to erode in such a way as not to be destroyed and then
found by someone who recognizes their importance (3). Furthermore, from what we know
of evolutionary mechanisms, speciation events are likely to occur in isolated populations
(4), and competition will quickly eliminate the less fit of closely similar forms (5). Both
processes make it even more unlikely that there will be a smooth, continuous fossil record
of intermediaries (6). Thus, it is not at all surprising that there are “missing links” in the
fossil record (7), and this is not good evidence against evolutionary transmutation (8)