Polymerase Chain Reaction & MALDI-TOF for identifying bacteria’.

Polymerase Chain Reaction & MALDI-TOF for identifying bacteria’.

You are required to submit a laboratory report on ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction & MALDI-TOF for identifying bacteria’. This should describe what you did in the practical and what results you obtained. It should contain sufficient information so that someone else can carry out the same procedures with the information from your report. This is a masters level degree and its required that you produce a work with no plagirism and with thorough arguements and information.You must also justify the informations you have included in the lab report with critical arguements .You must also include start with the abstract in the lab report and follow the guidelines included in the file attached as the assignment brief.I have also included material support for you to prepare the lab report which is attached in the email.Please include the picture on the attached file called assignment brief in the result section in the lab report and explain the picture whicyh shows the DNA FRAGEMENTS and label it. Please ensure the work is proofread and detected for plagirism.All the informations included must be relevant to the assignment brief and also ensure there are arguements and critical reasoning.
The above picture is my result for the experiment please include it in the result section when explaining my results.

You are required to submit a laboratory report on ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction & MALDI-TOF for identifying bacteria’. This should describe what you did in the practical and what results you obtained. It should contain sufficient information so that someone else can carry out the same procedures with the information from your report.

1.Abstract
2. Introduction – a single paragraph outlining what the techniques are used
For and how you are applying them.
3. Methods – Describe what you did, including any protocols you have been
Given.
4. Results – Describe what results you obtained
5. Discussion- describe what your results mean

GUIDELINES ON WRITING A LABORATORY BOOK
The full laboratory report should be written-up as follows;
When writing-up a practical it is important to remember not to regurgitate chunks
From textbooks or from the procedure book, but to present data in a clear and
Concise way and record experiments that you have performed and the conclusions
You were able to draw from them. You should aim to show that you understand the
Aims and significance of a practical and that you can interpret and fit your results into
A theoretical framework. You should write clearly and unambiguously.
Writing Style
You should try to write in a way that is easily understood and grammatically correct.
Use full sentences and check the spelling. Scientific writing is usually in the past
Tense because you are reporting on experiments that have been completed.
However, when citing a published result it is etiquette that you refer to it as a fact in
The present tense, e.g. “DNA has a double helix structure (Watson and Crick 1953)”.
It is also a convention in science writing to use the passive voice. In other words,
“The experiment was carried out” not “ I/We carried out the experiment”.
Structure
Your report should always start with the title and end with references. Use the
Organizational structure commonly used to report experimental research in many
Scientific disciplines, the IMRAD format: Introduction, Methods, Results, and
Discussion.
1) Title
You should give the work your own title. Your title should:
• Describe contents clearly and precisely.
• Provide key words for indexing.
• Avoid unnecessary words
• Avoid abbreviations and jargon.
2) Introduction:
The introduction should set the scene to the whole report. Be fairly brief, giving the
Background to the topic to put it in context and clearly stating the aims or objectives
Of the experiments. The introduction should do the following:
• Identify the topic/problem
Describe the topic/problem investigated.
Summarize relevant literature to provide the context, key terms, and
Concepts so your reader can understand the experiment.
• Explain why is it important
Review relevant literature to provide a rationale.
• Describe what solution (or step toward a solution) you propose?
Briefly describe your experiment: hypothesis (es), research question(s);
General experimental design or method; justification of method if
Alternatives exist.
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• Move from general to specific
Identify the problem in real world/research literature and then move to
Linking this with your experiment.
• Engage your reader: answer the questions, “What did you do?” “Why
Should I care?”
• Make clear the links between the problem and the solution, question
Asked and research design, prior research and your experiment.
4) Materials and Methods
This section describes how you studied the problem.
? what did you use? (May be sub headed as Materials)
What materials, subjects, and equipment (chemicals, apparatus, etc.) did
You use?
? how did you proceed? (May be sub headed as Methods or Procedures)
What steps did you take? (These may be sub headed by experiment, types
Of assay, etc.)
? Provide enough detail so that another person could duplicate your
Experiments following your method.
? Use past tense to describe what you did (remember that you have already
Done the experiment and are describing it afterwards so it should be in the
Past tense).
? Quantify when possible: concentrations, measurements, amounts (all
Metric); times (24-hour clock); temperatures (centigrade).
? don’t include details of common statistical procedures.
? don’t give any of your results with the methods.
5) Results:
What did you observe? For each experiment or procedure:
• Briefly describe the experiment without the detail of methods section (a
Sentence or two).
• Report main result(s), supported by selected data.
Your results should be set out as clearly as possible either in tables or as
Graphs. You must also describe your results in words, referring to tables
And figures but not simply repeating data. The aim is to help the reader
Interpret the data you give in the graphs or tables, pointing out the
Important trends etc.
• Order multiple results logically
• Use past tense to describe what happened.
• Don’t simply repeat table data; select.
• Don’t interpret results.
• Avoid extra words:
• Graphs must be adequately labelled, e.g. title, axis etc.
In general, you should draw graphs by hand unless you are expert at using
a computer to do it for you, but no computer aided special effects please!
Carefully consider what sort of graph you should be using e.g. bar chart,
Histogram, line graph. If you are not sure, either look it up in a text book or
Ask a tutor.
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• Tables should be labelled. Tables should be given a title at the top with
Any explanation and comments given at the bottom of the table in the
Form of footnotes.

6) Discussion:
Briefly, say what do your observations mean? What conclusions can you draw?
Consider, for each major result
• What patterns, principles, relationships do your results show?
• How do results relate to expectations and to literature cited in Introduction
(agreement, contradiction, exceptions)?
• What plausible explanations are there?
• What additional research might resolve contradictions, explain exceptions?
• Move from specifically discussing your findings to discussing them in the
light of the literature, theory and practice. Did the study achieve the aims
presented in the Introduction?
• Make explanations complete.
• Give evidence for each conclusion.
• Discuss possible reasons for expected and unexpected findings. Cite
references to back up any comments that you make.
• Don’t over generalise.
• Don’t ignore deviations in your data. These can provide interesting topics
for discussion.
• Avoid speculation that cannot be tested in the foreseeable future.
In the discussion you should comment on your results, interpreting them in the light
of the initial aims and the published literature. You should try to draw your own
conclusions. Keep your explanations brief and very relevant. Try hard not to simply
repeat the text from your results section.
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GUIDELINES ON REFERENCING
Basic rule: list a reference for every idea or statement that is not your own.
You should read text books, journal articles and use other sources to write your
report and then cite these sources in the body of the text as well as list them in a
reference list at the end. References should be made using the recognised format
chosen by the University. If you are unsure of the way to reference and to format
references, make use of the information provided in the library and on the intranet at
http://www.lr.mdx.ac.uk.
Failure to attribute the work to others is plagiarism. Be sure you do not
plagiarise, ever- it has serious consequences.
What and when to cite?
• Quotations
• Paraphrasing someone’s written work
• Figures and diagrams used for the purpose of illustration
How to cite?
Formal footnoting or alternative; at the end of the sentence or quote place citation
information in parentheses: (the author(s) name, date and page number).
Referencing
Written reports that contain information obtained from a source other than you
requires the use of references. Please use the following guidelines when citing
references