Psychology: Motivation, Emotion, Development, and Personality

Psychology: Motivation, Emotion, Development, and Personality

1. Carol is most likely to reject the _________ theory of aging because she pictures the body as a machine
that stops working properly as the parts wear out.
A. wear-and-tear
B. genetic preprogramming
C. activity
D. disengagement
2. In late adulthood, changes in memory may not be inevitable; however, any decline in memory tends to
involve _______ memory.
A. episodic
B. semantic
C. implicit
D. intrinsic
3. In Piaget’s model of cognitive development, a child’s tendency to view the world entirely from his or her
own perspective is referred to as
A. the concrete operational stage.
B. metacognition.
C. egocentric thought.
D. the sensorimotor stage.
4. People with a _______ can eat just about anything they want and not gain weight.
A. fixed proportion of fat cells
B. low metabolic rate
C. fixed weight set point
D. high metabolic rate
5. According to Erik Erikson, generativity-versus-stagnation is the typical challenge of
A. adolescence.
B. old age.
C. middle adulthood.
D. early adulthood.
6. Which of the following statements regarding the outcomes of Mary Ainsworth’s strange situation
experiments is most accurate?
A. Ambivalent children may both hit and embrace their mother on her return.
B. Avoidant children cry when the mother returns to the playroom.
C. Disorganized-disoriented behavior precedes a secure attachment.
D. Only two-year-olds are capable of showing a secure attachment.
7. According to _______ approaches to motivation, each person strives to maintain a certain level of
stimulation and activity.
A. arousal
B. instinct
C. homeostasis
D. drive-reduction
8. Having been attacked and bitten by a German shepherd, Sam reacts with fear on spotting any large dog.
According to recent developments in brain research the linking role of the _________ is paramount in the
recall of this sort of fear-evoking stimulus.
A. amygdala
B. left temporal lobe
C. visual cortex
D. hippocampus
9. If you agree with B.F. Skinner as to the nature of personality, you would also agree that
A. traits like sociability arise from unconscious wishes to be liked by others.
B. personality is shaped by people’s thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values.
C. humans are infinitely changeable because they can learn new behavior patterns.
D. human personality is largely shaped through observational learning.
10. According to Bandura, the extent to which we feel we’re able to meet a challenge or pursue a task to a
favorable outcome is our level of
A. self-efficacy.
B. extraversion.
C. openness to experience.
D. self-esteem.
11. Which of the following statements regarding adolescent suicide is not true?
A. Females attempt suicide more often than males.
B. Suicide is the leading cause of death among adolescents.
C. Suicide is normally associated with depression.
D. Male suicide rates are five times higher than those for females.
12. In the Binet IQ test, an IQ score is equal to MA divided by CA times 100. In this formula, “MA” is to
mental age as “CA” is to
A. cognitive age.
B. common age.
C. chronological age.
D. calculated ability.
13. Which of the following statements regarding human sexuality is most accurate?
A. Regarding premarital sex, the double standard applies to both men and women.
B. Only a minority of people engage in sex fantasies during actual intercourse.
C. Masturbation is an infrequent but not uncommon cause of sexual dysfunctions.
D. In females, estrogen production is a direct result of ovulation.
14. As discussed in your textbook, which statement best illustrates fluid intelligence?
A. Alex recalls the wiring pattern and deftly reconnects the power lead to the battery.
B. Gavin the spy quickly memorizes the 12-digit code.
C. Caldwell critically evaluates the likely causes of kidney stones.
D. Dylan scribbles the draft of a poem onto the back of an envelope.
15. Sternberg’s concept of practical intelligence is most directly related to
A. information processing.
B. overall success in living.
C. emotional intelligence.
D. multiple intelligences.
16. In the research conducted by Hans Eysenck, factor analysis was used to identify ________ basic
personality dimensions. Of these, the tendency to distort reality was labeled:
A. three; extraversion
B. five; neuroticism.
C. five; conscientiousness
D. three; psychoticism
17. Which statement about anorexia nervosa is true?
A. Typically, the lives of anorexics center on sex.
B. People with this disorder may well be attractive and successful.
C. Sufferers are usually males between the ages of 12 and 40.
D. Anorexics almost never starve to death, although they may die from other disorders.
18. The original purpose in constructing the MMPI-2 was
A. identifying a client’s optimal choices among occupations.
B. screening college applicants.
C. identifying psychological disorders.
D. screening job applicants.
19. If you support the idea that physiological arousal and the experience of an associated emotion will occur
End of exam
simultaneously, you’ll agree with the
A. James-Lange theory of emotion.
B. Schachter-Singer theory of emotion.
C. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion.
D. biological emotion-activation theory.
20. According to Rogers, we can overcome the discrepancy between our self-concept and our experience
through
A. conditional positive regard.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. balancing conditional positive and conditional negative self-regard.
D. unconditional cognitive regard.