Romanesque art- art history

Romanesque art- art history

Project description
**Please write about the topic that is stated below.**
**The citation should be in Art Bulletin form.**
**Must use 3 to4 sources of books.( no internet source)**
**Please include endnotes**
**Read all the instructions that I give and please follow one by one exactly.**
**please use uploaded instructions for detailed description on how the paper should be written**


*** You are writing a CRITIQUE OF THE BELOW TOPIC**

****Topic:- a critique of the literature on the zodiac in pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art; in what

astrological starter:

art historical starter:

sorts of artworks was it used, under what circumstances, what was the physical

arrangement, what were the related subjects, so they all begin with the same sign,

are the cycles broken, do they always appear with the Labors of the Year, etc:

****Helpful readings: S.J. Tester, A History of Western Astrology (Woodbridge 1987)

Simona Cohen, “The Romanesque Zodiac: Its Symbolic Function on the Church

Facade,” Arte Medievale 4 (1990) 43-54.

Margorie Panadero, The Labors of the Months and the Signs of the Zodiac in

Twelfth Century French Facades (PhD diss, Univ of Mich 1984).
The main purpose of the term paper assignment is to act as an exercise in resolving a problem by correct researching, critical reading, thorough analysis, and

the effective written expression of that analysis.  Anything else is secondary.  “Originality” as it is legitimately understood in some disciplines, such as English,

in which a personal interpretation is given to a work of writing is not considered to be an effective basis for papers in undergraduate art history.  Rather, the basis

of the paper should be the student’s own conclusions arrived at on the basis of an analysis of the current state of research on the problem that he or she has proposed

for the topic. Your paper must have a clearly stated thesis.   “Book report” or purely informational type papers do not meet the requirements of this assignment.  No

recycled papers from other classes.
Grading is based on the appropriateness of the topic, thoroughness of research, critical treatment of the topic, synthesis of ideas, quality of writing and of

organization, effectiveness of conclusion, grammar, neatness, spelling, foreign accents, and general format (including citation and bibliography).  Papers are due in

class on Friday of the eighth week, and will be marked down one full grade for each day that they are late.  No email attachments are accepted.  Papers are returned at

the final.
The length of the paper should be no less than seven and no more than ten pages of typed, double-spaced text (not counting endnotes, bibliography, and

illustrations).  It is quality–not quantity–that I look for when grading.

The most important step in writing any term paper is choosing a topic.  A good topic often results in a good paper–and a bad topic always results in a bad

paper.  A good topic is one which, above all, presents a thesis.  That is, the paper should be thought of in terms of a problem on which the writer first presents his

or her position and then his or her arguments for taking this position (problematize your topic and then suggest a resolution to that problem).  This is true for all

kinds of papers, including critiques of the literature.  In general, a good topic is one that 1) is interesting, 2) has a strong thesis, and 3) has enough already

written on it to provide a basis from which the student can then present his or her own views.
Students are free to choose any topic they wish.  However, without a good reading knowledge of French and German, a standard research paper is almost

impossible in medieval art history.  For this reason, it is best for most students to write a critique of the literature on a given topic.  For this reason, any

student wishing to write on a topic not on the list of possible paper topics must have their topic OKed with me.

Getting a bibliography
After deciding on a topic, the next step is getting a bibliography together.  This is normally done through a combination of two or three different steps.
First, find any articles or books on the subject through the use of book and periodical indexes online or in the reference room at the library.  From 1910 to

1989, use Répertoire d’art et d’archéologie (RAA).  From 1975 to 2007, use the online combination of Répertoire de la litterature de l’art (RILA), and the Bibliography

of the History of Art (BHA): (“Search BHA/RILA”).  From 2008 to the present, use the International Bibliography

of Art (IBA) online:
The on-line Art Index Retrospective covers from 1929 to 1984 and Art Full Text covers 1984 to the present.
For theological subjects, starter bibliographies are given in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, rev 3rd ed (Oxford 2005) and The New Catholic

Encyclopedia, 2nd ed (Washington 2003).  For articles on straightforward historical subjects, use International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) 1961 to the present, and

International Bibliography of Historical Sciences for 1926 to 2003.  Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale covers monographs (esp. books) and is online.
Second, find any books on the subject through the computerized library catalogue.
Third, look in the books and articles you have found for further references–this is often where you will find the best works.  Look especially in the most

recent writings.
Do this early in case you need to use Interlibrary Loan.  Getting hold of the right article or book can make your paper–not finding it may save you some

reading, but it will certainly detract from your paper.  Be sure to immediately place a recall, hold, or search on any book or journal that is not available.
Use only good authorities–that is, only scholarly works.  Never use coffee table books, picture books, or popular books (books written for amateurs, not for

students and scholars).  Avoid text books and survey books–these are normally only the synthesis by one writer of the real work of other authors.  Articles from

scholarly journals and scholarly books are the only sources that will help you.  Remember, your choice of sources is crucial and will determine the quality of your

Articles are just as good as books as authorities on a subject.  In fact, except for the most widely written-on subjects, articles are often more important

than books because they are often more narrowly focused.
Generally speaking, internet information is not considered to be at an appropriate level for college research.
You should have a minimum of three to four of the very best books or articles on your topic–not including other supporting works such as histories.  It is

usually necessary to have more, especially if their direct applicability is not the highest.  If you find that there are a great many authors who have written on your

topic, choose the three or four best–you can do this by reading one of the more recent works and seeing whom that author considers to be the more important writers on

the subject.
If you cannot get an important article or book (or if it is in a language that you cannot read), cite it anyway in the endnotes and explain that this was the

case.  Put it in your bibliography in parentheses in order to show that you are aware of the work but could not get hold of it.

Critical reading
Critical reading is perhaps the most important skill a person can use in writing a paper.  It is not something that most people know how to do, but it is

something everyone can learn.
To read critically means to always weigh the facts, opinions, and methodologies of authors–both modern and medieval–in order to test if they are sound and

comprehensive.  Some authors’ work may not be sound: it may be either factually incorrect because of incorrect premises, weak analysis, or insufficient data, or it may

be too gullible (especially regarding medieval sources).  Also, some work may not be comprehensive: it may not take into account whole categories of information.

Normally, this would be a weakness of methodology.  Methodology is the general approach a scholar takes to a subject–for example, many art historians are only

concerned with the relation of one iconographic form to another, thus hypothetically ignoring the fact that one form was chosen for one historical reason, and another

similar form for a completely different historical reason.
There is nothing wrong with using the opinion of other scholars as expressed in book reviews to support your own argument–in fact, this can sometimes be very

effective.  Just be sure to cite them.  Any paper that consists primarily of a critique of a single book must include a discussion of book reviews of that book.  The

use of book reviews in English of books in languages that you cannot read is also a good idea.  Use RAA, RILA, and BHA to find reviews.  Remember, a critique is not a

“book report”, in which information is uncritically presented.
In reading critically, be fair.  Do not ridicule an author.  When one author’s methodology leads him to insufficient conclusions and another’s leads him to

correct conclusions, point out the difference in methodologies–you may credit the superiority of one methodology, but do not ridicule the insufficiency of the other.

In writing your paper, it is often best to stick to the standard form: introduction, body of the argument, conclusion.
The introduction should briefly indicate your thesis and its importance.  The introduction should then provide a very, very brief overview of the problem,

without citing particular authors.  Finally, it is sometimes effective to hint at your own conclusion–but never give the conclusion in the introduction.
The body of the argument can only be arranged according to the given topic.  Whatever the topic is, be organized.  For example, if you are writing a critique

of the literature, deal with the authors in chronological order beginning with the earliest author.  In this way, you can show how one author builds upon or rejects

the work of previous authors.  As the last part of the body of the argument you should present your own views, including any new considerations, new material, or

different methodology that may affect the subject.
If your topic is less a critique of the literature and more a research paper proper, be organized.  For example, say it deals with a complex work of

architecture: start with the entrance and work your way toward the sanctuary–or, if the logic of the particular case demands, do the reverse.  Research papers proper

(i.e., not critiques of the literature per se as just discussed) must critique the literature before taking up the major arguments.
The conclusion should first summarize the entire paper, and only then present the actual conclusion itself.
Put all notes at the end (endnotes); do not put footnotes at the bottom of each page; do not put references in the text proper.
On a separate page, give the bibliography in alphabetical order.  Absolutely do not make this any longer than necessary: this sort of thing is immediately

noticed and gives a very bad impression.  Many good papers have short bibliographies.
After this, give photocopies of the illustrations used.  Just use normal photocopies.  Do not use actual photographs, etc.  All illustrations should be

numbered.  For example, when you refer to the illustration in your text, refer to it in this way: (Fig. 1).  Then on the photocopy write “Fig. 1” followed by a short

caption.  For example: Fig. 1, St-Denis, plan of Suger’s church.

Anything outside of common knowledge must be cited: ideas, theories, technical facts beyond common knowledge, paraphrases, direct quotations, and so on.  If

you choose to employ the direct language of an author–which normally should be avoided as bad form–you must use quotation marks and cite.  Never hesitate to give

credit where credit is due: it never detracts from your work.  To not do so is plagiarism, which is theft.  You are required to read:

Endnotes should have little or no discussion in them.  The general rule is this: if it is not important enough to put in the text, it is not important enough

to mention.  However, even more important than not putting extraneous information in the notes is not putting extraneous information in the text.  Most of the reading

done in a term paper is not used in writing the paper.  Adding everything that you have read will detract from your argument, and so from the quality of your paper.

You will always read more than you need for an effective argument.
All students must use the form given below, which is that employed by Art Bulletin.  In the Art Bulletin format, a complete form of citation is used for the

bibliography and a short form for the endnotes.  Articles, books, primary sources, and biblical citations unfortunately all have different formats:

Bibliography: article: first and last name of author, title of article, title of journal, volume number of journal, year, pages:
Richard Krautheimer, “The Carolingian Revival of Early Christian Architecture,” The Art Bulletin 24 (1942): 1-38.
Bibliography: book: first and last name of author, title of book, city of publication, year:
Otto von Simson, The Gothic Cathedral, 3rd ed. (Princeton, 1988).
Bibliography: primary source: author, title of book, modern editor, city of publication, year:
Suger, Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St-Denis and its Art Treasures, ed. Erwin Panofsky, 2nd ed. (Princeton, 1979).
Bibliography: biblical citations: it is not necessary to cite the edition of the Bible you use unless you use Latin.  For English, I recommend the 1582-1609

translation of the Vulgate (the Latin version of the Bible used in the Middle Ages) known as the Douay Rheims (Douai-Reims) version: The Holy Bible (Rockford 1971).

The Jerusalem Bible is recommend for general reading because of the clarity of its layout and coverage of its marginal references.
The first reference is given in full, just as in the bibliography.  All succeeding references should be given in a short form, as follows:
Endnote: article: endnote number, author, page:
1.  Krautheimer, 26.
Endnote: book: endnote number, author, page:
2.  von Simson, 113.
Endnote: primary source: endnote number, author, title, chapter number of pre-modern edition, page number of modern edition:
3.  Suger, De Administratione 33, p.62.
Endnote: biblical citations: endnote number, abbreviated title of book, chapter and verse numbers; no page number from the modern edition is necessary:
4.  Ps. 25:8.
Endnotes for more than one work by the same author: if more than one work by the same author is cited, then distinguish by date:
5.  Krautheimer, 1942, 26.
6.  Krautheimer, 1961, 294.
For other questions of style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed (Chicago 2003)–the standard for style and usage–or Kate Turabian, A Manual for

Writers, 7th ed (Chicago 2007), which is an abridgement of The Chicago Manual of Style and easier to use.  Very concise sets of rules regarding grammar, punctuation,

and typing conventions are found in good collegiate and unabridged dictionaries: find one and use it.

Standard format includes: typed; double-spaced; standard white paper (no thick, thin, or colored paper); margins of 1 inch on all sides; paginated; standard

type (New Courier, font size 12: no big type, no small type, no fancy type, no font types to fit more words in); good print quality; no folders or covers.
Order: title page (title, your name, name of instructor, course, term, and year); text; endnotes on separate pages; bibliography on separate pages; photocopy

illustrations on separate pages.  All pages should be numbered.
Identification of artworks: Give complete identification of any artwork discussed: name, artist (when known), date, original location (when known), current

location, and period (if pertinent).
Basic reference: The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. F.L. Cross, rev 3rd ed. (Oxford 2005); The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed (Washington

2003); the Dictionary of the Middle Ages (New York 1982-1989); and The Dictionary of Art by Grove (London 1996) (now online) should constantly be used for unfamiliar

names and terms.
A paper copy is to be handed in, with the student keeping a digital copy on at least two different sources throughout the writing of the paper (e.g., hard

drive and flash).  No email attachments. Do not put papers under my office door.  No more crashed computer or corrupted flash drive excuses.
Proofreading the paper before handing it in is a requirement.  Students who have problems with English grammar must have someone else proofread for grammatical

A model paper or two are usually on the course website.  Read one.


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