SAND BUDGETS

  1. (a) What’s the source for beach-sand in the natural, unaltered Oceanside Littoral Cell?

(b) Consider a “multiple choice” version of the question above on Exam #1, and the possible incorrect choices that might be available for you to choose…Predict one or more common misconceptions about beach-sand in a natural, unaltered Littoral Cell.

 2.  Diagram and correctly label the main components of the Oceanside Littor
  1. (a) Under what condition is there net depletion in the amount of material held in storage
    in an Open System?

(b) How does this relate to the Oceanside Littoral Cell, post-urbanization of San Diego?

  1. (a) Under what condition is there no net change in the amount of material held in storage
    in an Open System?

(b) How did this relate to the Oceanside Littoral Cell, pre-urbanization of San Diego?

  1. The “sand budget” of the natural, unaltered Oceanside Littoral Cell existed in which one of
    the following three states: disequilibrium, static equilibrium, or dynamic equilibrium?
    Briefly explain or elaborate:
  2. Accurately discuss the role of “recycling” relative to the “sand budget” of area beaches such
    as the Oceanside Littoral Cell.

B. FROM THE HANDOUT: “The Flight From Science And Reason”

  1. Choose the answer that best represents a rejection of rationalism:

The laws which govern gas consumption by Ford trucks are dependent upon

a) the sex and ethnicity of the driver
b) the universal theories of physics

  1. Choose the answer that best represents a rejection of rationalism:

One dollar plus one dollar equals two dollars

a) only for certain cultural groups
b) for all people

C. ENERGY LAWS

  1. “A car must be taken back to the Gas Station repeatedly for refueling because some of its’
    energy gets destroyed each time it gets driven.” Evaluate the statement above in the
    context of the First and Second Energy Laws.
    1. Consider the following statement:

Heat is an invisible, weightless, indestructible fluid (the “caloric fluid”) that when
absorbed by matter, raises its temperature; as such Heat can be neither created nor destroyed.

    (a)  Accurate or not accurate?  (b) How? (c) Thus, describe the relationship to Clausius.
  1. Consider the following statement:
    Heat is simply molecular-scale, randomly-distributed Kinetic Energy; processes such
    as “friction” can produce Heat by transforming other forms of Energy, such as
    ordered, macro-scale motion, into molecular-scale, randomly-distributed motion (a) Accurate or not accurate? (b) How? (c) Thus, describe the relationship to Clausius.
  2. (a) Does an increase in entropy mean an increase in “order” or “disorder” of a system’s
    energy supply?

(b) Thus, an increase in Entropy is a measure of a system’s increased “_ to
perform work.”

  1. Time moves in the direction that the total Entropy of the Universe increases or decreases?
  2. Of the following, which are TRUE vs. FALSE? According to the Second Energy Law:

a. all natural system processes operate in such a way as to generate and maintain a
condition of maximum entropy

b. all natural system processes operate in such a way as to dissipate ordered, useable
energy into non-ordered, non-useable, randomly distributed heat energy

c. it is impossible to design a car engine that is so efficient and so well-tuned that it
doesn’t produce any heat at all, but instead converts all of the chemical energy
stored in gasoline into the useful work of going from “A” to “B”

  1. Of the following, which are TRUE vs. FALSE? As per what law? When work is performed:

a. Energy is conserved

b. Energy is transformed

c. Entropy (or “disorder”) increases

d. Entropy (or “disorder”) is conserved