Signal Phrases & Parenthetical Documentation
The Standard: From the article above, create a quotation that uses a standard in-text parenthetical citation. Don’t include a signal phrase. For example, "Other settlements and court rulings have forced ski areas to develop safe plans for supplementing depressed flows in streams subject to snowmaking" (Rinella 14). Choose another sentence.
Being Efficient: Use the author’s name and title within the signal phrase, followed by a quotation from Rinella. Then decide what should go into the parentheses! Clue: Don’t be redundantonly include the information once.
Being Overly Done: Use the author’s name, the magazine title, the article title, date, and page number within the signal phrase that is associated with a quotation from Rinella. Clue: You don’t use parentheses in this one.
A Quotation Within a Quotation: Use a signal phrase that only includes the article title. For this example you must use a quotation by Myra Froster that Rinella has quoted. Be sure that your parentheses uses "qtd. in" as well any necessary and additional information such as last name(s) and the page number.
Other settlements and court rulings have forced ski areas to develop safe plans for supplementing depressed flows in streams subject to snowmaking. In September 2000, Vermont’s Killington Ski Resort completed construction of a 1.8-mile pipeline for snowmaking. Killington had been locked into a decades-long battle with conservationists over the depleted status of Roaring Brook. In the winter, the stream was anything but roaring; the ski area often sucked it down to a trickle. The new $5 million pipeline brings water from Woodward Reservoir in nearby Plymouth and supplies the resort with roughly 500 million gallons in a ski season, or more than twice what several other Vermont areas are allowed to withdraw from nearby streams.
Several Vermont ski areas are grappling with complications over their snowmaking policies. Managers at the Sugarbush Resort complain that they can’t compete with other resorts due to the limited water allotment. Similar concerns over water allotments prompted Stratton Mountain, another Vermont resort, to build a storage pond. That pond and a nearby lake supply Stratton with 222 million gallons of water during the ski season. "That’s enough to cover every trail at the resort with two feet of snow," said Stratton’s Myra Froster. "Stratton’s snowmaking has been limited by temperatures, not water.