Six original “Hallmarks” of cancer

Recap of main points from the first 8 classes (25 points)

Name the six original “Hallmarks” of cancer (3)
What feature of a tumor does a pathologist assess to distinguish between benign and malignant? (1)
Is most cancer thought to be driven by genetics or environmental factors? What are two pieces of evidence that support this conclusion? (2)
Likewise, what are the two contributions that Howard Temin made through his work with retroviruses? What is a provirus? (2)
What was the first oncogene isolated? What kind of protein does it encode? (1)
Define the following terms discussed multiple times in class, as they relate to oncogenesis: (4)
What kind of proteins are most growth factor receptors? Name 3 mechanisms by which growth factor receptors can become oncogenic (3)
v-sis and v-erbB are two viral oncoproteins that cause tumors in host animals. What type of protein is each one? (2)
Likewise, what are threegeneral mechanisms by which “sustained proliferative signaling”, the first hallmark, can be driven? (I’m not looking for specific proteins/names, but rather at what levelcan that be accomplished?) (3)
Mutated Ras has pleiotropiceffects on a cell. Define pleiotropic, and indicate what three major cellular signaling pathways Ras activates (3)