statistic – Counseling Research exam with mult.choice qustions

statistic – Counseling Research exam with mult.choice qustions

Order Description
Counseling Research and Program Evaluation
Fill In:
1. While ________ refers to all of the people that could be potentially sampled in random sampling methodology, the _______ refers to the total pool of people a
researcher actually has access to in order to sample participants.
2. _________ is the form explaining research objectives, risks, and the details of participating in a study that researchers must provide potential participants in
order for them to decide whether they are willing to participate in the study. Allowing participants to decide not to participate or to end their participation at any
time, without consequence, is evidence of the ethical guideline ________.
3. Any type of research aimed at measuring the correlation or relationship between two or more variables is consistent with this Objective of Psychological Research:

4. A_______ design is both a research methodology and statistical analysis used when examining the relationship between continuous independent and dependent variables.

5. After you have achieved a significant difference in an ANOVA analysis, you must conduct a ________ test in order to determine which of the groups are significantly
different from one another.
6. _________ is the form explaining research objectives, risks, and the details of participating in a study that researchers must provide potential participants,
under18 years old, in order for them to decide whether they are willing to participate in the study.
7. The _________ is the scientific prediction states that there will be no significant difference, relationship, or effect between the independent and dependent
8. A _________ is a prediction of a research outcome that not only indicates that there will be a significant difference, effect, or relationship between two
variables, but also indicates where that difference, effect, or relationship will be for the two variables.
9. Researchers look to manipulate or introduce the _________ variable into a research design or study in order to observe the effect it has on the ___________
Multiple Choice:
10. If I am administering an intelligence assessment battery as a part of my research on whether client intelligence impacts successful therapy outcomes (for example,
including the WAIS-V), with a range of possible scores from zero to over 140, what is the scale of measurement for my data?
a) Interval c) Nominal
b) Ordinal d) Ratio

11. Which of the measures of central tendency is most easily affected by outliers, or extreme scores?
a) Mode c) Mean
b) Median d) Ceiling
12. If I complete any statistical analysis but achieve a p value of .055, may I conclude that my results indicate a significant difference?
a) No c) Yes, because it is approaching significance
b) Yes d) No, because the analysis was not two-tailed

13. As a researcher, you know the correlation coefficient between Time on Facebook and Time Spent Studying to be r = .45. In order to calculate the R, the Regression
Coefficient, (also called the Coefficient of Determination) you need to:
a) The Coefficient of Determination cannot be calculated from the Correlation Coefficient
b) Square Root the Correlation Coefficient
c) Square the Correlation Coefficient
d) Coefficient of Determination is the Correlation Coefficient

14. Which of the measures of central tendency is least easily affected by outliers, or extreme scores?
a) Mode c) Mean
b) Median d) Ceiling
15. This distribution curve represents a negatively skewed distribution of students’ scores on an IQ measure. Negative skews are caused by too many scores that are at
the extreme______ end of the distribution curve:
a) High c) Center
b) Low d) Skews are not due to extreme scores
16. Selecting every nth participant from a population to be included in a sample is an example of:
a) stratified random sampling c) systematic random sampling
b) probability-based sampling d) simple random sampling

17. _________ is a sampling methodology where specific subgroups of the entire population are randomly sampled in specific proportions according to their overall
representation in the population, while _________ is a sampling methodology where specific subgroups are conveniently sampled (AND NOT RANDOMLY) according to their
specific proportions of representation within a particular population or demographic.
a) Systematic Random Sampling c) Convenience Sampling
b) Quota Sampling d) Stratified Random Sampling
18. ________ is the process of answering participant questions, addressing participant concerns, and providing more information about your research, which must occur
for each participant and at the end of their participation in your research.
a) Dehoaxing c) Debriefing
b) Informed consent d) Deception
19. However, _________ is the process of informing participants that you have intentionally misled them about the purpose of your study by intentionally giving them
misinformation about the purpose of your study, the nature of their participation, or the information that was to be gathered or observed during their participation
a) Dehoaxing c) Debriefing
b) Informed consent d) Deception
20. The __________ is a research design and statistical analysis that assesses the strength and relationship between two variables
a) Regression c) Correlation
b) T-Test d) Wilcoxon T
Short Answer:
21. What will an ANOVA allow you to do in terms of comparing groups that a T-test cannot?
22. What is the ethical dilemma that exists when you use deception in relation to the ethical principal of respect for a participants autonomy and her or his right to
give informed consent?
23. What is the difference between the null hypothesis and research hypothesis?
24. Describe the difference between the single-sample t-test, independent t-test, and dependent t-test.
25. Please describe the essential difference between active informed consent and implied informed consent.
26. Describe one way in which Quota Sampling is similar to Stratified Random Sampling; describe one way in which it is not.
27. Discuss one limitation to using Systematic Random Sampling.
Answer the following seven items based upon the research scenario below.
You are a researcher studying the impact of parenting style on the overall self-esteem of late adolescent teenagers from age 15-18 years old. Parenting style is
defined as parents either having authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive parenting styles. The adolescent participants that are the basis for this study will then
be assigned to groups according to whether they describe their parents as authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive. Self-esteem is measured by the Late-Adolescent
Self-Esteem Scale (LASES), which measures overall self-esteem on a scale from 0-100 (with higher scores indicating higher self-esteem measured by number of times one
feels positively across several situations).
28. What is your independent variable?
28a. What is the scale of measurement for this variable?
29. What is your dependent variable?
29a. What is the scale of measurement for this variable?
30. How many levels of the independent variable are there?
31. Which statistical analysis would be best to use, based upon the information you have?
31a. Why?
32. What could be your research question for this study?
33. What would be your research hypothesis for this study?
34. Is your hypothesis directional or non-directional; why?
35. What would be your null hypothesis?
36. What is the difference between a One-Tailed (Directional) and Two-Tailed Hypothesis (Non-Directional)?

Answer the following questions according to the scenario provided.
*******As a researcher you are investigating citizenship status (U.S. born citizens and non-citizens) and differences in the perceptions of the importance of
education. You are using the EDUCATIONAL IMPORTANCE SURVEY to measure perceptions of importance. Participants complete a survey measuring how many times a week they
engage in educational activities, homework assignments, and verbally communicate with their children regarding education and educational importance.********

37. Discuss at least two (2) multicultural issues that are potential extraneous factors in this research:

38. Which are the independent and dependent variables: what are their scales of measurement?

39. What statistical analysis would be most appropriate? State your evidence.

40. What type of data analysis would you use if you had only one group (non-citizens) but tested them while they were not citizens and then again once they gained
their citizenship?
41. If you were comparing citizens to illegal immigrants and legal immigrants on work visas, what statistical analysis would you use?
41a. If you found a significant difference using this analysis, what would you know?

41b. What would you not know because of the nature of this analysis as well?

41c. What is the secondary analysis you would have to run to find out where the specific differences might be between the three groups?

41d. if you switched your DV to a survey using a Likert-type scale measuring their level of agreement with different educational attitudes and behaviors, which
analysis would you use now?

42. What type of sampling methodology would you use to obtain citizen participants vs. non-citizen participants? Why?
43. Is this study designed to describe, or predict, or control behavior; what is your evidence?

44. Please create your own idea of one hypothetical sample question from the EDUCATIONAL IMPORTANCE SURVE, including the potential responses your participant can
choose from. (***Create one version that has a response format that gives continuous data; Create one version that has a response format that gives categorical
Answer the following questions according to the scenario provided.
*******You are a therapist and a researcher working at a college counseling center for a year, and you have observed that students referred to the counseling center by
friends seem to remain in therapy at higher rates than students who are referred by faculty members or mandated to come by the residence life office. You decide to
study this issue and sample any students who come to the counseling center that are willing to participate in your study (variable 1: therapy attendance ; variable 2:
source of referral)*********

45. Provide a research question for this observation.
46.Which of the sources of research ideas is this (previous research, theory, general observation, etc)?
47. Provide one research hypothesis and one null hypothesis

48. Identify the Dependent Variable and Independent Variable.

49. How would you operationally define the dependent variable?
50. How would you operationally define the independent variable?
51. As a researcher, how would you incorporate Beneficence, Justice, and Respect for Autonomy into the design of this study?

52. Is this an experiment, quasi-experiment, or causal comparative study; why?

53. Are you attempting to describe, predict, or control behavior in this study; what is your evidence to support this?