you have to use this book Research methods and statistics in Psychology HUGH COOLICAN

Answer the following questions by writing a short essay.

Describe how qualitative and quantitative approaches to research differ in terms of:
a) their underlying philosophical framework
b) the type of research questions that are typically addressed
c) the nature of data that is collected and the method of collecting data
d) the method of analyzing data
e) If you had the opportunity to conduct your own research, would you be more interested in doing qualitative or quantitative research? Explain the reason for your preference.

What is the difference between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics? In your answer address the purpose of each branch of statistics.

What is meant by sampling bias? Give an original example of a sampling procedure that would be likely to result in a biased sample, and explain in what way the sample would be biased. Identify the target population in your response.
What is the main way in which experimental research differs from non-experimental research? Give an original example of a research question that could be answered through an experimental study. Identify the independent and dependent variables in your research question.

5. (5 points)
Explain why small rather than large p-values lead to rejecting the null hypothesis.

6. (5 points)
Why is validity considered to be the most important characteristic of an instrument?

Part 3

Define each of the following terms in your own words (2 points each)

1. nominal (categorical) variables
2. measures of central tendency
3. measures of variability
4. population
5. simple random sampling
6. level of significance
7. null hypothesis
8. Type I error
9. the 68-95-99 rule
10. positively skewed distribution