Studying the effect of appearance (formal informal dress) on how people react to you by showing their thankfulness when you open the door for them.
– Thesis Statement (Underline or Bold Font the Thesis)
– Literature Review
• (Minimum 2 sources: Journal articles or Books)
• Methodology Section(see below for more info on methodology)
• Results Section– At a minimum 1-2 pages. No measurement necessary – No use of the word significant or numbers proofing the hypothesis.
• The methodology section describes the important details of the study.
• May include aspects such as: – What the researcher did
– Where and how the research was conducted
– How the researcher impacted the study. • Impact of researcher’s actions on subjects
• The purpose of the methodology section is to allow readers to evaluate for themselves the quality of the research.
• In addition, the methodology functions as a guide for the reader to answer questions they may have about the study.
• What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?
• How valid are the findings?
• How reliable are the findings?
– Replication: If someone else did the same study would they get the same or similar results
• How generalizable are the findings?
– How applicable are the findings to different settings or groups
?Sections within the Methodology •
Part I: Overview and Access
• Provide the reader with a general idea of what was done.
• The first sentence should provide an overview by briefly describing subjects interviewed or observed.
–ex: Interviews were conducted with baristas at starbucks
ex– City planning documents were analyzed at the public works department.
?• Was there a gatekeeper?
• What type of access was granted? – Was access conditional?
– Was confidentiality promised? – Review of results or findings?
• The remainder of the section /paragraphs should explain how access to conduct the research was obtained.
– For example, could the research have been done without some type of assistance or intervention from someone else?
• Remember, has to do with your own research.
?How were subjects obtained?
• The answer to this question differs from one type of research project to another, as well as within similar methodologies.
• What role did the researcher take?
– Was the researcher a known or unknown, a participant observer, or something else?
?Review: Different Roles • Non-Participant observer
– Not part of active setting
• Unknown Participant Observer
– Relatively concealed, interacts with those observed, research objectives unknown to those being observed.
• Known Participant Observer
– Participant in group or setting, objectives known to those being observed, informed of research.
– Individuals were observed shoplifting through a two- way mirror.
– I did not inform customers of the research agenda or that they were being observed.
– Individuals were approached during working hours and asked if they would be willing to participate as subjects in my research.
– I informed the members of the office that I would be observing their activities as part of a research project.
?How much detail
• The length of this section depends on how much information is necessary to provide a clear understanding of the research.
• This will depend on the topic, thesis, and the number or kinds of observations.
• Typically two or more paragraphs.
?Part Two: Subjects & Setting
• This section addresses the specifics concerning the subjects who were observed or interviewed and where and how these observations or interviews were made.
• Helps the reader understand the strengths & weaknesses
• Describe subjects & setting in enough detail to provide relevant information.
– Not everything will be relevant
• An idea of what the people are like that you observed.
• What may be appropriate or relevant
• Is the information related to what you are
– May have an impact on what you are observing and recording.
– May have an influence on the answers you obtain 14
?How much description • Characterizing groups vs. each individual
• Provide the reader with enough information to form an idea about the group, but not each single individual.
• You may want to describe the setting as well.
• Briefly discuss how and where the observations were done.
• Introduces the reader to types of situations arose during the observations.
• Provide information on the site or location of interviews
– *Note also applicable for observations
• Important in terms of any extenuating circumstances.
– How comfortable was the subject?
• For example, asking private information
– How do you like your boss? Is the boss present?
– How do you like working here? Customers or owner present?
• What types of situations arose during the interviews?
• The reader needs to know where and how interviews occurred.
?Part Three: Data Collection • Discussing the Observations
• How were the observations made?
• Allows the reader to judge the quality or validity of the research.
– Provide a visual depiction of what was happening during the observations.
– Focus on the details
• For example, customers at a coffee shop
• Outcomes will differ based on the site
• Items that caused problems
• Difficulties arose and how they were handled
?Why this information is included?
• Generalizability: research observations applicable to other sites or maybe it is unusual or unique
• Interested in determining what could have influenced the results or findings.
?Data Collection: Interviews
• What type of interviews were conducted
– Structured: Same questions
– Unstructured: Unfolding conversation
– Combination of both structured and unstructured
• Same initial question, subsequent questions based on what each individual reveals.
• What areas were of primary interest?
• What questions were asked?
– It is not necessary to list every single question
• Will differ from each research project: handled differently in each situation.
?What was done with the data?
• How was the information documented or archived? – Did you audio record?
– Did you take notes during the interview ?
– Did you take mental notes and later record them?
• What impact on the subjects might your method have had?
– How might it have influenced the questions you asked (or did not ask?
• How did you analyze the data?
• A general framework for the methodology:
• Part I: Overview and Access • Part Two: Subjects & Setting • Part Three: Data Collection