analyze a text for linguistic features that may be potentially a challenge. include prevalent features of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics (please don’t send me an analysis of only vocabulary or lexical density).
Register – language of a specific context
Field – subject, e.g. linguistics
Tenor – relationship between writer and reader
Mode – oral or written
Lexical density (higher # of content words per sentence – especially nouns and adjectives)
Abstraction – Passive voice constructions; Nominalization (turning verbs or adjectives into nouns); Complex NPs (nouns with adjectives and prepositional objects – He called out to his friend)
Discipline specific vocabulary (math: function, addends, science: population, trait, ELA: narrative, recall)
more general academic vocabulary (e.g., language relating to academic functions: analyze an argument, defend a position, cite a source, elaborate, clarify, examine; other high level (low frequency) vocabulary surrounding the topic.
features of the language of science, social studies, math (look at syntax minilecture)
Semantic features of a word – synonyms, antonyms, multiple senses of a word, ambiguity, logic.
Phonological features of words: which sounds/segments may be difficult for students?