Discussion 1: What are the advantages of multicellularity? Consider concepts such as the cell cycle, cellular division, organelles and cellular structures.
- Multicellularity by definition of having multiple cells ensure that it is larger than its unicellular counterpart and has the added benefits of having the ability to ward of potential threats. In addition to its larger size it has the added benefit of mobility that allow migration to more advantageous environment. The life cycle of a multiple cellular organism is longer because the cell differential allows specialized cells and specific organelles to complete exact tasks while working in tandem with other cell structures to make things more efficient. Another advantage is cellular division through mitosis which “allows semiconservative replication in which half of the DNA is retained while a new one is formed during cellular division. From a evolutionary standpoint, this allows favorable traits to continue to the next generation while also allowing the introduction of more favorable traits resulting from adaption.” (Hoffman, 2016)
- Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells. Some advantages of multicellularity are that they live longer, there are more than one cell so when one dies it can be replaced, they have specialized cells, it is less likely to be eaten, they can live in a variety of habitats, and can perform many metabolic processes.
Multicellularity allows an organism to exceed the size limits normally imposed by diffusion: single cells with increased size have a decreased surface-to-volume ratio and have difficulty absorbing sufficient nutrients and transporting them throughout the cell. Multicellularity also permits increasing complexity by allowing differentiation of cell types within one organism.
Discussion 2: How is cellular respiration and photosynthesis similar? How are they different? What fundamental processes do they share in common and what cellular structures are used for both?
- They both contain water, carbon dioxide, glucose, oxygen, and energy. They are both processes that provide each other with the ingredients needed for the process to take place. They are essentially the same process just in reverse. While in photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water yield glucose and oxygen. Through cellular respiration glucose and oxygen yield carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis assembles the glucose molecule while respiration takes it apart. Both processes involve a cycle of chemical reactions, use and produce ATP, and use the electron transport chain.
- Cellular respiration takes the glucose and combines it with oxygen, which is what creates ATP while wasting carbon dioxide and water (Shuster, Vigna, Tontonoz p. 130).
Photosynthesis takes carbon dioxide and combines it with water, while receiving radiant energy from the sun (Shuster, Vigna, Tontonoz p. 130). Glucose is a huge role for photosynthesis, while wasting oxygen. Photosynthesis is the storing of energy while cellular respiration is the releasing of storied energy (Shuster, Vigna, Tontonoz p. 130). A key factor for photosynthesis and cellular respiration is ATP, which is a rechargeable energy source that relies on one other to hold their said of the barging (Shuster, Vigna, Tontonoz p. 130).
Cellular reparation and photosynthesis are very similar because they play a huge role within the game of life. The word energy is important because it’s a key factor in animal and plant cells and the ability to recharge themselves. Both are looked at as a positive influence, I like to relate the process two to a husband and wife. Reason is because they both use each other for necessary ingredients and without the two the relationship they share within life would fail.