The elements that are crucial to your resultant/written paper should be:
• genre: how does the type of literature impact meaning? [weave into discussion where pertinent]
• context/structure: how does this passage fit within the broader literary context? What is the passage’s structure?
• validation: what are the pros/cons for choosing between competing interpretive options?
• word studies and biblical theology: what key terms within the passage would be helpful to understand better (semantic fields, concrete illustrations of abstract theological terms, etc.)? What biblical themes/theology are worth developing that shed light on this passage?
• application: how does this passage impact/intersect with our lives (logical and theological development)?
Exegetical Paper Guidelines
Study the biblical text according to the following areas of exploration outlined below. When you write up the exegetical paper, you are presenting the conclusions arrived at during the interpretive process of studying the biblical text. The paper should be written in such a way that it integrates all that you have learned in the interpretive process. [CLARIFICATION: THIS MEANS YOU ENGAGE ALL OF THE BELOW TO THE DEGREE POSSIBLE. HOWEVER, DO NOT WRITE THE EXEGETICAL PAPER WITH THESE STEPS. PRIMARILY INCLUDE IN THE WRITTEN PAPER THE FIVE CRUCIAL ELEMENTS ABOVE.]
Craig C. Broyles writes: “We should not proceed through these exegetical steps in a linear fashion (i.e., attempting to finish a step before moving to the next) but in a spiral fashion (i.e. revisiting and revising earlier steps once discoveries have surfaced).”
Take time to meditate on the passage as part of the process. In a prayerful manner, read the text over and over again (perhaps aloud to yourself) emphasizing different words and phrases in the process of reading.
Begin the paper with an introduction stating which biblical passage will be analyzed. Then include the following components:
2. Authorship, Date, Occasion and Purpose
A. Begin by discussing the question of authorship and date of the larger unit (i.e. the book) in which the text is found. What, if anything, can be determined about the date and authorship of the passage? Do we know anything about the original author or redactors/editors or about the original audience?
B. The Occasion and Purpose of the Book
What do we know about the occasion which led to the writing of the book and the passage in question? What is the overall purpose for the book?
C. The place of the text to be studied in the broader flow of the book?
Describe the literary context of the passage. This involves analyzing the place of the passage within the chapter, within the section of the biblical book, and within the book as a whole (the immediate context and the larger contexts). In other words, how does the passage relate to what precedes and follows it and within the document as a whole? Is the text part of a larger narrative/story? Is the topic addressed in the passage found elsewhere in the book? What is the significance of the position or placement of the passage within the larger context? How does the larger context shed light on the passage?
3. Textual Matters and Translation
The initial step in the study of a passage is to establish as much as possible the “original” text. This step involves using the method of textual criticism in order to determine the text’s wording. Discuss any textual variants or problems in the passage seen in the ancient manuscripts (e.g. Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT), Greek Septuagint (LXX), Aramaic Targums, Greek versions of the New Testament, etc). (Here you need to consult critical commentaries which have notes on the Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek and discuss textual variants.) If there are differences in wording between the ancient manuscripts of the Bible regarding this text, please mention these (at the least major ones). If there are no textual problems apparent, simply say so and move on. However, if there are, what interpretive problems are raised by these and what solutions seem the most appropriate. Which reading will you adopt? Which English translation forms the basis of your exegesis?
4. Genre and Structure
Identify the genre or literary form (e.g. whether it is narrative, poetry, epistle, prophecy, etc), and then outline the structure of the passage. Outlining the structure involves dividing the passage into sections and adding a heading or title for each section. Include the verses for each section.
An Example of the Structure of Ezekiel 34:1–31: The Salvation of Yahweh’s Flock
A. Preamble and the Announcement of Deliverance (34:1–10)
1. The Indictment of the Shepherds of Israel (34:1–6)
2. The Sentencing of the Shepherds of Israel (34:7–10)
B. The Nature of the Deliverance (34:11–22)
1. Deliverance from External Threats (34:11–16)
2. Deliverance from Internal Threats (34:17–22)
C. The Goal of Deliverance: Yahweh’s Covenant of Peace (34:23–31)
1. The Human Agent of Peace (34:23–24)
2. The Nature of the Peace (34:25–30)
3. Epilogue: The Significance of Peace (34:31)
5. Historical Context
Describe the historical, cultural, social context or background of the biblical text under consideration. What is the Sitz im Leben, Life Setting? Are there clues in the passage itself? Give support for your answers from the biblical text and any secondary sources.
6. Exegetical Analysis of the Text
In this section discuss the results of your in-depth close reading of the text. Go through the whole passage, verse by verse, making observations about each verse and explaining its significance. Study the key words of the passage. Are the key words or phrases repeated in the passage? What is the meaning or nuance of certain words (you may need to do a word study, although this is optional). Assess their meaning in light of the topic of the passage, the author’s use of them elsewhere, and the historical situation and the theological issues at stake. Discuss the flow and development of the narrative or the main argument(s). You may consider looking at any grammatical or syntactical features, like main and subordinate clauses, connective terms, modifiers (adjectives and adverbs), etc. Discuss any similes, metaphors, figures of speech. Why are they chosen? What do they contribute to the author’s purpose in light of the situation/problems being addressed? What emotional impact might they have on the readers?
7. Main Themes and Theological Message
Discuss the main themes in the passage as well as the theology that is emphasized in the text. In this section you are synthesizing the results of your study, looking at the message of the passage as a whole.
Some questions to consider: What specific aspect of the biblical conception of the Person of God, God’s purposes in the world, the Divine-Human relationship, is this passage discussing? What are the main themes or sub-themes in the passage? What is the main overall message? Is there a main argument? What is its purpose? Are there certain theological traditions or themes alluded to in the passage (e.g. Exodus, Covenant, Creation theology, etc) which are found elsewhere in the biblical canon? Does the passage echo and clarify earlier passages? Is it echoed or developed in later passages (intertextuality)? Why was this passage included in the book? What theological truths are communicated? Summarize your conclusions.
8. Theological Implications and Appropriation
In this section you are moving from what the text meant to what it means for us today. You are moving from the biblical context to the contemporary context. Here you want to look for appropriation by recontextualizing.
The question you must ask yourself is this: having studied this text in detail, what difference could or should it make in the life of a person of faith today? How should it shape the perspectives and choices of Christians in your particular faith community? What possible ideas might some people take from this text that would be unhelpful or even destructive?
First, outline the perspectives, principles, values, virtues and theological ideals arising from the biblical passage. What are some general principles or core values which flow out the biblical text? These ideas must flow from the perspective of the text’s theological purpose in its original, ancient, biblical context. But although these perspectives, principles, values, virtues or theological ideals must arise out of the text, they must reflect relational and theological issues that transcend the particulars of the biblical context, and are more generally true in the broader biblical perspective of the character of God, and the divine-human relationship.
Your perspectives/principles/values/virtues/ideals must be rooted in the intentional theological outlook and purpose of the text and should have a relational focus. They should be rooted in what the text says about who God is, about living the life of faith, or about what God is looking for in his relationship with his people, as seen in the text. It may also involve the relationship of God’s people with one another, with the nations or with the creation, or God’s relationship to the nations or to the creation.
Once you have outlined these core values, then recontextualize by considering the question of appropriation in the modern context. What is the contemporary significance of the passage in your context?
Here it is helpful to situate the contemporary hearers in relationship to the text. Determine the points of contact as well as dissimilarity between the biblical and modern contexts. How they are different, yet how they are the same? Here you may include a statement of any cautions and warnings your hearers might need to hear about what NOT to do with this text (perhaps based on abuses of it that have gone on in contemporary or earlier societies).
In the process of recontextualizing and appropriation, it is helpful to define your own context. What is the context in which you and your faith community live? How would you appropriate the message of the text in your context? Consider both personal appropriation and corporate/communal appropriation. Give specific suggestions as to how the perspectives, principles, values, virtues or theological ideals that you have identified could be ‘incarnated’ by Christians today, individually or collectively. What is God saying to you through the passage? What is God asking you to do or be? Ask the Holy Spirit to speak to you through the biblical text.
A final word: be careful of making the application too general or vague. Be specific. Give specific examples of appropriation and a plan for how to implement them. Remember James 1:22–25.
A Practical Note:
Your paper needs to include a bibliography of the secondary sources used in your study. The bibliography and footnotes/endnotes need to follow the proper bibliographic format. The paper should be about 12–15 pages in length (approximately 3000–3750 words). Use a minimum of eight academic sources (not counting a Study Bible) as part of your research; a maximum would be 1+1/2 to 2 pages of bibliographic entries (Turabian style and works that you have used in writing the paper). Do not rely solely on internet resources. If you use internet sources, only look at academic sources; there are many sources on the internet that are not academic. You should consult academic sources like commentaries, theological dictionaries, articles, etc.
Must use these sources
Commentaries: Gordon Fee (NICNT; also IVPNTC); Moisés Silva (BECNT); Peter O’Brien (NIGTC); Frank Thielman (NIVAC); Ralph Martin and Gerald F. Hawthorne (WBC revised ed.); Ben Witherington (S-RC); Stephen Fowl (THNTC); John Reumann (AYBC); Todd Still (SHBC).
Periodical articles: Joseph H. Hellerman (BBR, 2010; JETS, 2009); J. Christopher Edwards (JTS, 2010); Sean F. Winter (JSNT, 2008 [review article]); Mark Weedman (JTI, 2008); Dennis W. Jowers (JETS, 2006); Gordon D. Fee (BBR, 1992); Denny Burk (TB, 2004); Adela Yarbro Collins (BI, 2003); David J. MacLeod (BibSac, 2001).
Chapter in an Edited Volume: J. L. Lietaert Peerbolte, “The Name Above All Names (Philippians 2:9)” in Revelation of the Name of YHWH to Moses (Brill, 2006); Bruce N. Fisk, “The Odyssey of Christ: A Novel Context for Philippian 2:6-11” in Exploring Kenotic Christology (Oxford University Press, 2006).
Monograph: M. Sydney Park, Submission within the Godhead and the Church in the Epistle of Philippians: An Exegetical and Theological Examination of the Concept of Submission in Philippians 2 and 3 (T&T Clark, 2007).
• This essay should be word-processed
• Its length should be around 3000 words (10% allowance, and excluding references and appendices)
• It should be presented in essay format – please see guidelines
• It must include correct and appropriate referencing – including Tables and Figures
• It must be submitted both electronically (through Blackboard) and a paper copy handed into the College Admin Centre by 4.00pm on Monday 15th December 2014
• Requests for extensions will ONLY be granted due to SERIOUS personal mitigating circumstances, supported by appropriate evidence (eg medical certificate)
and that is our group brief
Why should managers/employees check e-mail 24/7?
The internet is the fabric of our lives. E-mail is one of the most commonly used services on the internet, allowing people to send massages to one or more recipients.But there is a new labour agreement in France in 2014, it aims to give employees a better work life balance so they want ban on checking work e-mail after 6pm.
1. Effective communication can be positive to the whole organization. Return in time is essential to both manager and subordinate staff.
2. People can send almost any kind of information by e-mail. It is easy to check and manage details of message.
3. Influence employees’ working style. When boss send e-mail in any possible time, it might shows manager’s hard working. That is the inspiration or motivation of employees.
1. It will have too much pressure on employees. It means over control on working time, and may cause the problem of quantitative workload. Reducing the satisfaction of employees.
2. Hiding emotion. Non-verbal language includes some invisible information, like bodily contact or tone. E-mail only can keep verbal language.
3. Information security. Information disclosure usually happens inside and outside of organization. Company may get loss because of this problem.
BENEFITS & DISADVANTAGES
? Fast & effective: E-mail as a combination of written and spoken digital elements, it will arrive at their destination in this world within seconds or minutes. And it is easier to communicate to multiple recipients, be it 20 or 200 people, especially during off hours. So in can improve the efficiency, every problems can be solved in time.
? Inform emergency events/ important information: there are a lot of methods can inform those notifications, such as letters or call. But letters need formal language and layout and phone call can not inform everyone at once, it may be spend a lot of time. Particularly, during off hours. For example if there is an emergency event tomorrow but the manager forgot inform everyone, the manager will send an e-mail to employees during off hours.
? Build the relationship between the manager and employees: This is one of the part of motivation. According to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs mode, the relationship belongs to the love needs. it is beneficial to organizations motivate employees group working and their friendship.
? Pressure:24/7 Check mail occupied employees off duty time,In fact, this is a disguised form of overtime work. Checking work emails can be a distraction from family life. In French, legally-binding agreement asking workers to “disconnect” from work emails ,“No after-work e-mails please. French ordered to ignore the boss after 6pm” ran the title of one report. The deal signed between employers’ federations and unions representing workers in the digital and consultancy fields stipulates that employees should avoid the temptation to consult work emails in non-work time and employers must not pressure them to be electronically available after this time.
? Counterproductive: in order to chasing the efficiency optimization, the manager will always send the e-mail to employees. But it may leave out the employees attitude, make employees antipathy and dispose of a matter carelessly, inefficient work achievement.
? Too much: When in charge of a large team, will receives at least 50 emails every day. Reading and responding to all of this mail takes a long time. When we use it appropriately, email is an incredibly useful communication tool. But many of us feel overwhelmed by the amount of mail that we receive and need to respond to.
Critically evaluate its usefulness to management and leadership
? Initially, checking emails in24 hours can closely keep contact between managers and employees. Meanwhile, it can improve work efficiency or even doubled especially for some companies who do international business for their time differences.
? Then, in the event of an emergency business, this behave can ensure that there are always several relevant employees in the waiting list. As an example, there are a lot of companies in the community who have provided 24-hour service, not only the staffs, in some special circumstances, in order to ensure management and employees to keep in touch so that they can make timely guidance, and the employees can make the correct reflection.
? 24 hours to check the mail can improve the efficiency of the staff; on the contrary, it decreased the quality of life in private both to managers and employees. And to some extent, to add additional staff workload and which is also unpaid.