The origins of Renaissance

  1. Define the origins of Renaissance. Why did the Italian Renaissance produce such a strong spirit of Humanism?
  2. Discuss the major contribution Leonard da Vinci? How was the Northern Renaissance in Northern Europe different from the Italian Renaissance? Discuss the importance of the Maritime Exploration prior to 1450 and after 1450. Who opened up the Window of Exploration and what technological innovations did the Europeans employ?

3.Discuss the origins of the Protestant Reformation? Martin Luther and John Calvin were contemporaries of one another, but different from a religious theology, how?

4.Why was Oliver Cromwell important? Discuss the significance of the English Civil War and Glorious Revolution and the Bill of Rights.

  1. Why caused the Thirty Years’ War and why did it become the first modern war and the treaty of the Peace of West Westphalia was the first modern peace?

6.Why is Machiavelli usually considered the “father of modern political thought “?