The rationale for having a policy in that HR area (why);2. The content of such a policy based on evidence (what); and 3. Issues in effective implementation (how)
The purpose of the essay is to demonstrate understanding of the following:
1. The rationale for having a policy in that HR area (why);
2. The content of such a policy based on evidence (what); and
3. Issues in effective implementation (how).
I choose the following topic area: Planning to achieve a workforce that reflects the age diversity of stakeholders/customers; Within Qantas Group Air industry.
This assignment should be written as an academic essay, not a business report. Students are expected to analyse their chosen topic by conducting fairly broad research. It is anticipated that much of the material will be sourced from relevant academic journals.
Human resources management (HRM) exists to determine and plan the organisational structure within an organisations to run successfully and grow. HRM is the process to of control and commitment to make the organisation work effectively (Runhaar & Runhaar, 2012). There are many factors that may leads to effects any organisation performance such as age diversity (Kunze et al., 2013). In this case, it will examine the policy / practice of age diversity into Qantas Group. Qantas Preliminary Final Report (2014) shows that the number of employees decreased by 3000 comparing with recent years. This is because “The demographic changes occurring in most industrialized countries present an urgent challenge for many organizations today”( Kunze et al., 2013 ,p. 413) which “…developed countries are facing an aging workforce due to decreasing birth rates …” (Rabl & Triana, 2014 ,p.403).
The HRM and mangers role is to create different organisation culture that can fit old employees and new employees where the organisation work effectively (Rabl & Triana, 2014 & Runhaar & Runhaar, 2012). Kunze et al. highlight the significance of impacts in this respect:
“…high levels of age diversity are leading to social fragmentation between different age groups, fostered by social identity (Tajfel and Turner, 1986) and social categorization processes (Turner,1985), which may then lead to increased levels of discriminatory behaviour between different age subgroups impairing organizational performance (Kunze et al., 2011)” (2013, p.414).
Rabl & Triana (2014) found study in 2008 about the average ages of employees who their age between 40 and older were in the United States and within 2018 this age group may will rise by “24%”. This kind of study helps to create a new hypotheses and effective strategy to make better organisation through working between different generations (Runhaar & Runhaar, 2012).
Kunze, F, Boehm, S, & Bruch, H 2013, Organizational Performance Consequences of Age Diversity: Inspecting the Role of Diversity-Friendly HR Policies and Top Managers’ Negative Age Stereotypes, Journal Of Management Studies, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 413-442, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 November 2014 at >http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=529f91fb-4843-4672-bd49-c0a67172240d%40sessionmgr4002&vid=1&hid=4105 <.
Rabl, T, & Triana, M 2014, Organizational Value for Age Diversity and Potential Applicants’ Organizational Attraction: Individual Attitudes Matter, Journal Of Business Ethics, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 403-417, Publisher Provided Full Text Searching File, EBSCOhost, viewed 25 November 2014 at >http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/eds/detail/detail?vid=9&sid=134217dd-1cc8-4855-bbdf-946bb09683c1%40sessionmgr4005&hid=4105&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=edb&AN=96086369 <.
Runhaar, P, & Runhaar, H 2012, HR policies and practices in vocational education and training institutions: understanding the implementation gap through the lens of discourses, Human Resource Development International, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 609-625, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 25 November 2014 at >http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=a050ce3a-effd-45bb-8989-b992df8bcfa9%40sessionmgr4004&vid=1&hid=4105 <.
Qantas Preliminary Final Report For The Financial Year Ended 30 June 2014, viewed 25 November 2014 at >http://www.qantas.com.au/infodetail/about/investors/preliminaryFinalReport14.pdf<.
BMA 121: Managing People at Work
Individual Assignment (Guidelines, structure & referencing)
Part 2 (complete submission) – 2pm, Friday 9 January, 2015
The overall task is to choose one of the topics listed in page 12 of the Unit Outline for your individual essay. The three topics are:
a) Planning to achieve a workforce that reflects the age diversity of stakeholders/customers;
This assessment is in 2 parts:
1) The complete submission of 1,500 words is due on 2pm, Friday 9th January, 2015. It is important that you answer the three (3) specific aspects of the task description, being:
• The rationale for having a policy in that HR area (why);
• The content of such a policy based on evidence (what); and
• Issues in effective implementation (how).
A rubric for assessment of the complete submission is enclosed as page 7 of this document. When you upload your full submission to the Dropbox you will be able to elect to keep your mark out of 5 for the ‘proposal’ and your full submission be marked out of 15 or for the full submission to be marked out of 20 (mark for the proposal not be counted).
Read the question carefully. Where there are differences in views between researchers/writers, it is important your essay reflects all sides of the argument/debate. The academic literature should be supported by material from other sources such as magazines, newspapers, organizational web sites or internet sites.
A requirement is that you include a section on the issues in the effective implementation of the policy (which includes both academic and practical considerations). It is recommended that you use a (real) organisation as the context for your essay: in the Introduction/Rationale provide core basic information about the nature of the organisation. This will help the rationale for why the organisation ‘should’ have a policy in your chosen topic area (a, b or c). You should not check to see if the organisation does have a policy in this area (the essay is not about assessing an existing policy) – the key point is that it would make sense for the organisation to have a policy on this topic.
Note: You may choose to include additional information about the organisation (e.g. extract from a web site) as an appendix – an appendix does is not included in the word count, nor it is formally marked: it simply assists to clarify the context for the essay.
Word Limit: 1,500 words maximum. The word limit includes everything except a table of contents and the list of references: therefore quotes and in-text references are included.
There is a plus or minus allowance of 10% (1,350 to 1,650) words; however it is important that if you go over 1,500 words then the additional words must “add value”. It is necessary to include an accurate word count on your assignment.
The essay rubric setting out the criteria is attached. A guide to how you allocate the word limit based on the weighting of the criteria is set out below. A suggested breakdown (this is simply one suggestion as there are many different ways to structure the essay) across the parts of the assignment is as follows:
• Introduction/Rationale for policy 300 words
• Analyse, assess, evaluate HR literature to support
Content of policy 650 words
• Issues in implementation & well supported
Conclusions 400 words
Total 1,350 words
(This leaves 150 words to fit where they will be best used).
Use headings appropriately. Clarity and accuracy are important because errors detract from the content. Presentation clarity is important but please avoid wasting time on making your assignment look pretty – colour is OK but don’t use binders, folders, fancy illustrations etc.
The minimum number of academic references (that meet the criteria listed in the guideline posted in Unit Information) is 10. This does not include the textbook. It will be difficult to get a mark above a mid-credit (13/20) using the minimum number of academic references.
On the next page is an example of the correct referencing style. It is an extract from research so it contains proportionately more references than expected from students in this unit: however, it shows the importance of citing ideas, material and quotes from your references. I have also attached the list of references for that extract. As much as possible, you should use recent references that support the context of your assignment.
At the end of the document is a set of broad guidelines to assist in determining what qualifies as academic references. Not all items in Google Scholar, Proquest etc. meet the standards. It is meant as a guideline only, so check if you are unsure.
Dr Simon Fishwick
Impact of Human Resources on organisational performance
Since the publishing of the “Harvard” model (Beer et al.1985), there has been an upsurge in research of the links between an organisation’s human resource policies/procedures and organisational outcomes. The current evidence is mixed with views that: “There is little doubt any more that there is a clear connection between the way people are managed and organisational performance” (Purcell, 2002, p.1), but “…there is no convincing evidence that the use of HR practices is associated with a change in performance” (Guest et al. 2003, p. 291).
The role of the line managers who are increasingly involved in the implementation of human resource policies is significant (Purcell et al. 2003). In particular, it is the managers’ behaviour in demonstrating, or otherwise, the importance of human resources that can impact on the response of employees (Guest, 1997; Boxall & Purcell, 2011). Glynn, Steinberg and McCartney highlight the significance of managers in this respect:
…Whether an individual feels able to discuss issues outside of work, request different ways of working and believe that the organisation genuinely enables balance will depend considerably on the skills of the manager in creating an open communication culture of trust and respect (2002, p. 8).
It is the response of employees that produces organisational outcomes (Ramsay, Scholarios, & Harley 2000) and therefore organisations need to consider the effect of these polices on employees and the response of increasingly well-educated employees to these policies (Guest, 2002; Boxall & Purcell, 2011). From a strategic human resource management perspective what is necessary is not just well integrated human resource policies (Guest et al, 2003) but also a focus on the implementation of those polices and the response from employees.
Beer, M, Spector, B, Lawrence, P, Mills, D & Walton, R 1985, Human resource management: A general manager’s perspective, New York, Free Press.
Boxall, P & Purcell, J 2011, Strategy and Human Resource Management (3rd edition), Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire England.
Glynn C, Steinberg I, & McCartney C 2002, Work-Life Balance: The Role of the Manager, Horsham West Sussex, Roffey Park Institute.
Guest, D 1997, Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 263-76.
Guest, D 2002, Human Resource Management, Corporate Performance and Employee Wellbeing: Building the Worker into HRM, Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 335-358.
Guest, D, Michie, J, Conway, N & Sheehan, M, 2003, Human Resource Management and Corporate Performance in the UK, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 291-314.
Purcell, J 2002, Sustaining the HR and performance link in difficult times, Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD) Conference June 2002, Harrowgate, England.
Purcell, J, Kinnie, N, Hutchinson, S, Rayton, B, & Swart, J 2003, Understanding the People and Performance Link: Unlocking the black box. London, CIPD.
Ramsay, H, Scholarios, D & Harley, B 2000, Employees and High-Performance Work Systems: Testing inside the Black Box, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 501-531.
CHECKLIST FOR ACADEMIC ARTICLES
This is an informal guide to what can be considered as “academic articles”. It has been prepared by Dr Simon Fishwick, University of Tasmania as general guidance only.
1. The article has is published in a “peer reviewed” journal and has, itself, been peer reviewed;
2. Author affiliation is provided: be wary of anonymous articles and authors who are not affiliated with Universities/Research Centres/Institutes – particularly journalists or “writers”;
3. Author’s credentials – look for qualifications and positions held in a university or in a professional association;
4. Check if the article uses in-text references or footnotes/end notes;
5. Look for sources cited by the author/s – references, footnotes, bibliographies. The longer the list, the more likely it is to be academic (be wary of less than 10 references);
6. Look at the content and structure of articles and, in particular, see if the article analyses theory and/or reports on research (look for headings such as “literature review, method, analysis, results, discussion, implications” or similar words);
7. Check if the articles use charts, diagrams, statistics (the more complicated, the more likely to be an academic article);
8. Look at the length of an article: academic articles are normally a minimum of 6 pages (2,000 words) long – the longer and more dense and formal the language, the more likely to be an academic article;
9. Check to see how often the article has been cited by other authors (these are used by a number of the data bases) – recent articles may have low citations because of the length of the “publication cycle”;
10. Look for limited use of pictures and advertising (colour pictures and “advertisements” within the page range of the article normally means the publication is a “magazine”);
11. Check to see if the publication is relevant to topic of assignment (focus on HR/organisational behaviour and related Journals – be careful with “Alaskan Fishing Journal” etc.);
12. Check if the Journal appears in “academic databases” or in academic sites such as “Google Scholar” – however, be careful as these sites contain material that does not meet the overall guidelines to be considered an academic article.
Essay Rubric – BMA121 Managing People at Work, Spring Summer, 2014/2015
Criteria HD (High Distinction) DN (Distinction)
70% – 79% CR (Credit)
60% – 69% PP (Pass)
50% – 59% NN (Fail)
0% – 49%
90% – 100% 80% – 89%
Explain the rationale for policy & structure of the essay
Weight = 4/20 Provides an extensive justification for policy and explanation of the essay rationale and structure Provides a comprehensive description and explanation of the rationale for policy and structure of essay Provides a detailed description and explanation of the rationale for policy and structure of the essay Provides a sound description and explanation of the rationale for policy and structure of the essay Provides an adequate description and explanation of the rationale for policy and structure of the essay Provides an inadequate and/or limited description and explanation of the rationale for policy and structure of the essay
Analyse, assess and evaluate relevant HR literature to provide the basis of your answer to the chosen topic
Weight = 8/20 Insightful, focussed and perceptive analysis and description of issues using and demonstrating an in-depth critical understanding of HR literature Insightful and perceptive analysis and description of all issues using and demonstrating a very good critical understanding of HR literature Perceptive analysis and description that encompasses most issues using and demonstrating a good critical understanding of HR literature Good analysis and description that encompasses a sound range of issues and demonstrating a sound understanding of HR literature Analysis and description of an adequate range of HR showing a competent understanding of HR literature Some issues analysed and described with limited or incorrect use of HR literature
Provide well-supported implementation issues for firm and well supported conclusions
Weight = 5/20 Excellent implication issues explicitly drawn from the literature. Completely appropriate and insightful conclusions Excellent implication issues clearly drawn from the literature. Completely appropriate conclusions Very good implication issues drawn from the literature and predominately appropriate conclusions Good implication issues drawn from the literature and mostly relevant conclusions Sound implication issues generally drawn from the literature and at least partly relevant conclusions Unsound and/or unclear implication issues not drawn from the literature. Conclusions not stated or poorly expressed
Structure, clarity of expression & adhere to referencing conventions.
Weight = 3/20 Exemplary structure and clarity of expression. Acknowledged all sources. Accurate and integrated referencing Excellent structure and clarity of expression. Acknowledged all sources. Accurate referencing Very good structure and clarity of expression. Acknowledged most sources. Mostly accurate referencing Good structure and clarity of expression. Acknowledged most sources. Generally accurate referencing Satisfactory structure and clarity of expression. Acknowledged sources with some errors. Reasonably accurate referencing Unsatisfactory or poor structure and clarity of expression. Acknowledged sources with regular errors. Some referencing conventions followed
Final mark: /20
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