The role of Religious beliefs in history

Modern society often considers religious belief as something that is potentially (and even likely) to be
divisive, and we are only too well aware of the acts of violence that can be done in the name of faith in our
own era. How would someone of the pre-modern past (that is, prior to 1500) react to modern criticism
regarding religious societies?
Consider three different societies (for example, Ancient Rome, the Muslim
Caliphates, and one of the Chinese dynasties) that we have spoken about during the semester and discuss
what role religious belief played in their history. What would be their response to modern attitudes towards
religious belief? What can we learn from their worldview?