Turning Points in Western Music

Select TWO of the topics below and write an 800-word essay on each that includes references to specific composers and compositions. You should take care to ensure that all information obtained from books, articles, websites, recordings and other sources is correctly referenced and you should include a bibliography at the end of the essay.

Topic 1
Although Bach never travelled outside Germany, his music reflects influences from both French and Italian music. Discuss.

Topic 2
Haydn is regarded as one of the most innovative composers in the history of Western Music. Choosing EITHER his symphonies OR his string quartets, discuss some of the ways in which these works can be considered to have changed the musical landscape of his time. Your essay should include references to specific works or groups of works covered in the course.

Topic 3
How did Beethoven’s perception of himself as an artist and as a man shape his own music and influence many composers who came after him?

Topic 4
What did early critics of Bizet’s opera Carmen find so shocking about the work and how did it compare with the prevailing operatic culture in France at the time?

Topic 5
Why is Igor Stravinsky considered such an important figure in the history of Western music in the 20th century? Discuss.