Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria—most often Escherichia coli. However, certain viruses, fungi, and parasites can also lead to infection. The infection can affect the lower and upper urinary tract, including the urethra, prostate (in males), bladder, ureter, and kidney. Due to the progression of the disease and human anatomy, symptoms present differently among the sexes as well as among age groups. It is important to understand how these factors, as well as others, impact the pathophysiology of UTIs. Advanced practice nurses must have this foundation in order to properly diagnose patients. To Prepare • Review Chapter 30 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections. Consider the similarities and differences between the two types of infections. • Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.