US Government – The Courts and Civil Liberties
You can find the instructions in the attachment. Let me know in case you have any questions/concerns. Thank you.
Part 1 (about300 words total)
Imagine that a middle school civics class is studying the role of judges, and the teacher has enlisted your help. Use theprofile below to write an interview script with a judge that would help the middle school students understand the important job judges do.
Profile: The Honorable Sam Robinson
? Justice on a state supreme court
? Appointed by a Republican governor
? Has been a judge for 13 years
? Married with three children
? Recent case–ruled that a city noise ordinance did not violate the right of free expression protected by the state constitution and Bill of Rights. Officers stopped and cited a driver for playing music too loudly from a vehicle. No other traffic violations were noted in the incident.
Imagine yourself as the judge you read about in the profile. From his perspective, compose answers (each answer should be about 50 words long) to the following questions:
• How is your role in government different from an elected official?
• How is it the same?
• Do you think judges should be elected? Explain why or why not.
• What is judicial review?
• Please explain the role of judicial review in a case you recently decided.
• Please explain how you arrived at your decision, including different factors that affected it.
Part 2 (about 600 words total + 4 pictures)
Regard the following two Supreme Court decisions and the two legislative actions that expanded civil rights:
1. Brown v. Board of Education
2. Roe v. Wade
1. 19th Amendment
2. Civil Rights Act of 1964
Research each decision and policy and find a picture to represent each one. Regard the background and outcome of each case or law. Be sure to cite the sources of the information and images in MLA Format.
For each of the four events, include:
• an image to represent the case decision or legislation
• a minimum of one well-written paragraph explaining the background of the event
• the significance of the event to the expansion of civil rights
Your response should be about 150 words for each of the four events. Also, please cite at least two sources for each event.
Part 3 (about 450 words total)
Researchthe following ongoing human rights issue:
• Human Trafficking in Thailand
Learn about the issue. Carefully read the case study provided on the next page and also consider using other websites and news outletsto learn more about the issue. Be sure to find out how the United States and other countries are attempting to address the issue.
Imagine yourself as a staff member of the United Nations assigned to keep ambassadors up to date on human rights issues and government policies to address them. You will create a policy update for the U.N.includingat least three well-written paragraphs that address the following:
Paragraph 1: Origins–How did the human rights issue come about? Who does it affect and how? How does it affect human rights?
Paragraph 2: Responses–How is the United States government responding to the issue? How are other governments both inside and outside the situation responding to the problem? How do these responses relate to the foreign policy spectrum of approaches (isolationism, diplomacy, interventionism, imperialism)?
Paragraph 3: Evaluation–Are the efforts and policies enacted by governments and international organizations successful? What would you recommend be done to better address the human rights issue?
Human Trafficking in Thailand Case Study
In recent years, “trafficking in persons” or “human trafficking” have been used as umbrella terms for activities involved when one person obtains or holds another person in forced service. The U.S. Department of State and the international community regard Thailand as a source of and destination for men, women, and children who are victims of human trafficking. The majority of the trafficking victims identified within Thailand are immigrants from Thailand’s neighboring countries who are forced, pressured, or deceived into modern slavery. Conservative estimates place the number of human trafficking victims in Thailand in the tens of thousands. Trafficking victims within Thailand were found employed in fishing, seafood processing, low-end clothing production, and domestic work like housekeeping. Evidence suggests that the trafficking of men, women, and children in commercial fishing industries and domestic work represent the most significant portion of all labor trafficking in Thailand.
Research by the United Nations (UN) and nongovernmental agencies indicates a significant population of trafficking victims in Thailand. The UN Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP) estimates that Thai authorities send home over 23,000 Cambodian trafficking victims a year. Similarly, authorities in the neighboring country of Laos reported that thousands human trafficking victims from their country were returned to their home country by Thai authorities in 2011. A report released in May 2011 by the inter-governmental agency called International Organization for Migration noted widespread forced labor conditions in Thailand. The report notes that individuals from neighboring countries of Cambodia and Burma are recruited–some forcefully or through fraud–for work in the Thai fishing industry. According to the report, Burmese, Cambodian, and Thai men were trafficked onto Thai fishing boats that traveled throughout Southeast Asia and beyond. These men worked on boats that remained at sea for up to several years, did not receive pay, were forced to work 18 to 20 hours per day for seven days a week, and were threatened and physically beaten. Similarly, an earlier United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking study found 29 of 49 (58 percent) surveyed migrant fishermen trafficked aboard Thai fishing boats had witnessed a fellow fishermen killed by boat captains when they were too weak or sick to work. In 2011, it was not uncommon to find immigrant children in Thailand forced to sell flowers, beg for money, or work in homes. Vietnamese women recruited for work in Bangkok, Thailand were found to have been confined and forced to act as stand-in mothers.
Immigrants or refugees in Thailand are at greater risk for trafficking than Thai citizens. The greatest risk factor for women and girls to become victims of human trafficking in Thailand was their lack of citizenship. Thai citizens who are trafficking victims were most likely to be found laboring outside of Thailand in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bahrain, and China.
Efforts in Thailand
According to the U.S. Department of State’s 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report, the Government of Thailand does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking set forth by the United Nations. However, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government of Thailand continues implementation of its human trafficking law and conducts awareness-raising activities on human trafficking. The Thai prime minister has chaired meetings with labor and civic organizations to coordinate anti-trafficking efforts. This led to the development of the Thai government’s second six-year National Policy Strategy on human trafficking for 2011-2016. In July 2010, the prime minister publicly acknowledged the need to improve the government’s weak interagency coordination in addressing human trafficking. The Thai government reported increases in trafficking prosecutions and convictions, but as of May 2011 there was insufficient data available to determine whether each of these could be categorized as human trafficking convictions.
Given the significant scope and magnitude of trafficking in Thailand, there continue to be a low number of convictions for human trafficking and low number of victims identified among vulnerable populations. Direct involvement in human trafficking by corrupt law enforcement officials reportedly remains a significant problem in Thailand. In 2011, authorities reported investigating two cases where officials, including high-ranking officers, were aware of trafficking and did not take action. It is important to note that there were no convictions or sentences for those officials during 2011. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working in the area report that problems hindering the government’s anti-trafficking efforts included local police corruption, cultural biases against laborers from other countries, and lack of effective systems to identify victims and prosecute traffickers.
In the 2007 United Nations publication The Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, Secretary-General Asha-Rose Migirio stated “Human trafficking affects us all, whether we live in countries of origin, transit or destination. Preventing and combating it requires a comprehensive international approach. We must act together to stop a crime in our midst that deprives countless victims of their liberty, dignity and human rights.” International organizations and NGOs have been working with Thailand’s government to combat human trafficking in the region. In 2000 the United Nations General Assembly adopted The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. States that sign it commit themselves to taking measures against international organized crime, including the creation of laws within their countries to combat human trafficking. Most UN member nations have signed the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, including Thailand. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime has published educational materials to aid law enforcement officers and government officials in preventing and combating human trafficking, as well as model laws to guide governments around the world in their efforts.
U.S. government’s principal diplomatic tool to engage foreign governments on human trafficking is the annually published Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP). It is the world’s most comprehensive resource on governmental anti-human trafficking efforts and reflects the U.S. Government’s commitment to global leadership on this key human rights and law enforcement issue. The U.S. Government uses the TIP Report to engage foreign governments, including Thailand in dialogues to advance anti-trafficking reforms and to combat trafficking, making suggestions for areas of improvement and noting progress. Worldwide, the report is used by international organizations, foreign governments, and nongovernmental organizations as a tool to examine where resources are most needed. The U.S. Department of State indicates that freeing victims, preventing trafficking, and bringing traffickers to justice are the ultimate goals of the Trafficking in Persons Report and of the U.S Government’s anti-human trafficking policy.
Modified from the U.S. Department of State web publication “Trafficking in Persons Report 2011”.) (Public Domain)